Asphaltum  (or mineral pitch) is a bituminous mineral substance found more or less pure, in some localities. The pitch lake of Trinidad and the Bermudez lake at the mouth of the Orinoco in Venezuela, are the largest known deposits of moderately pure asphalt. Smaller deposits of high grade occur in Utah, Cuba and the Barbadoes.

Rock asphalt  consists of sandstone or limestone impregnated with asphalt. Much asphalt is produced in refining certain grades of petroleum—such as those obtained in California and Texas.

Rock asphalts are mined in France, Switzerland, Sicily, California, Kentucky and Oklahoma.

For paving rock asphalts are much used in Europe. Trinidad and Venezuelan asphalts are exported in large quantities to the United States and Europe. For paving, these lake asphalts are mixed with broken stone, sand and petroleum residuum.

Pure varieties (gilsonite, marjak, glance pitch) are made into black varnish, used for insulating, etc.