Chicken

 Chicken and Ham Patties

Use the white meat from the breast of the chickens or fowls, and proceed as for veal and ham patties. 


a term applied to anything young, small, or insignificant; chicken stakes , small paltry stakes; “she's no chicken ,” said of an old maid.

Albert D. Lasker

Chicken Paprika

Say a five pound chicken—do it this way and see how you like it.

Slice four small onions. Put one-sixth pound of butter into pan, add onions and let cook over fire until soft and a light brown in color. Add two teaspoonsful of paprika and put in the chicken piece by piece, fitting into kettle; add 1¼ tablespoonsful of salt, cover tightly and cook until soft (two hours or more). Remove the chicken, and into the gravy add 1¼ tablespoonsful of canned tomatoes; shake in a tablespoonful of flour and stir well; add ¾ pint of sour cream and stir well over the fire. Strain over the chicken; heat again and serve.

Joshua A. Hatfield

émince of Chicken à L'Alexander

Select a choice five-pound fowl, have it boiled, cut into flakes and put aside.

Brown in saucepan ¼ pound of butter and two tablespoonsful of flour to a nice yellow color, add to this one quart of chicken broth and let it boil for a few minutes, keeping on stirring it; beat into this sauce six yolks of eggs and the juice of two lemons, working it all the time, but taking good care not to let it boil any more; pass it through a fine sieve and keep it hot in Bain-Marie.

Cut into flakes and sauté in butter ½ pound of fresh mushrooms, then take ¼ pound flaked boiled Virginia ham, one bunch of finely chopped Tarragon and mix this with the chicken flakes in the thoroughly heated sauce; season with salt, pepper and paprika to taste and serve in chafing dish; place on freshly made toast or hot buckwheat cakes.

Thomas H. Ince

Chicken Halibut

(Baked and with Parmesan )

Boil some slices of halibut in court bouillon, lay in baking dish a border of potato croquette—either hard or shaped with hand. Have layer of bechamel on bottom of dish—then one of shredded fish, another layer of bechamel and one more of fish, finishing with the bechamel; sprinkle with bread crumbs and grated Parmesan. Pour over a little butter and brown in the oven.

With Parmesan. Prepare same and make solid paste by mixing together butter and Parmesan cheese with pinch paprika. Work well and roll out one-eighth inch thick. Cover last layer bechamel with this and brown in hot oven.

Bechamel Sauce. Prepare roux of butter and flour, let cook few minutes while stirring—not allow to color—remove to slower fire and leave it to cook 15 minutes. Then dilute gradually with half boiled milk.

Joshua A. Hatfield

Suprême of Chicken à L'Alexander

Take the breast of a four-pound roasting chicken (stuff very lightly with a filling made of chicken, cream and fresh mushrooms mixed with white of egg) and have it poached in butter and chicken broth. After being done remove the suprême and have the sauce reduced to one-quarter of its volume, then incorporate first one tablespoonful of sweet butter and add six finely chopped French shallots, one-half glass of white wine, two spoonsful of brown sauce (demi-glacé), season well with pepper and salt, let it cook for about three minutes, and strain through fine sieve.

Dish suprême on a fried canape cut to shape and sauce it.

Garniture

  • Fried eggplant cut in Julienne shape
  • Green peppers sauté in butter
  • Fresh tomatoes sauté

Arrange the vegetables around the suprême on platter by keeping them each separately and serve sauce apart.

Will Hays

Chicken Pilau

“Get a fat hen—the fatter the better.”

Because this recipe comes from a Southern cook, there are no accurate measurements.

Sam would always recommend a “fat hen”—“the fatter the better,” and “'nough rice and plenty of pepper.”

This I know: The chicken is cut up and boiled in the water until tender. Should be cooked in a good sized flat bottom kettle. When the chicken is tender there should be enough of the stock to come up well around it, but not to cover it. Then put in with the chicken about a scant pint of well washed rice. This should be stirred ONCE, Sam says, and allowed to steam slowly an hour. Use plenty of pepper to season and salt to taste. Each grain of rice should be fat and juicy. Successfully made it is delicious.

Editor's Note :—The Chicken Pilau recommended by Mr. Hays is delicious. A variation perhaps equally good, may be had by substituting broken spaghetti, or vermicelli for the rice.

Macklyn Arbuckle

Southern Gumbo á La “County Chairman”

A year-old fowl. Joint it as you would for frying.

Soup kettle ready on the back of the stove with cold water.

Then, the frying pan—

About one-half dozen thin slices of the best bacon. Reserve this for the kettle later.

Bacon fat in the frying pan—fry the chicken very brown. As soon as each piece of chicken is brown place it in the kettle—then put the kettle over the fire. Let it boil.

Add six small onions or three large ones. Sliced and fried in the bacon grease.

Onions fried golden brown.

Then to the onions add a can of tomatoes or the equivalent of sliced tomatoes.

Keep stirring from the bottom to prevent burning.

All must cook until it has thickened.

While cooking add chili peppers cut fine, green peppers the same, also okra.

Add one or two large bay leaves and season to taste with salt and pepper.

Onions, tomatoes and peppers should be added to the chicken in the kettle when they have cooked sufficiently.

If fresh okra is not available use the best canned kind.

About ten minutes before the Gumbo is ready add—

One can of Golden Bantam Corn.

To serve with the Gumbo have a dish of perfectly cooked rice. You may use the same general formula for Crab or Oyster Gumbo. A Combination Salad is about the only thing worth serving with Gumbo. Although you might wash it down with a bottle of PRE-WAR IMPORTED CLARET—HELP!!!!

Baron de Cartier (Ambassador to the United States from Belgium)

Waterzoie De Volaille

Without doubt the most popular national dish of Belgium is Waterzoie de Volaille—a most delectable and satisfying soup of chicken. In Brussels the dish reaches perfection under the magic of the chef of the famous restaurant the “Filet de Sole,” known to amateurs of good cooking in almost every country of Europe.

I am going to tell you how they do it at the “Filet de Sole.” First of course you will secure a fine young fowl—chicken—and, after it has been perfectly cleaned and dressed, you will rub it well with a piece of lemon. Now cut it up as you would for frying.

Next prepare the casserole or vessel in which the soup will be made by generously buttering the sides and bottom. Over the bottom of the vessel place a bed of fine julienne composed of one third of fine white celery (remove all fibers or “strings”) one-third of the white part of leek and one-third of white onion. To this add a bouquet composed of a half leaf of laurel, a soupçon  of thyme enclosed in a few roots of parsley, the roots having been well scraped and washed.

Upon this bed place the pieces of chicken and over the whole pour a little more than a quart of dry white wine and veal broth—one third broth and two thirds wine. Water may be used instead of the broth but the latter is preferable. Season with kitchen salt, freshly ground white pepper and a pinch of clove.

Bring the mixture to the boiling point and allow it to simmer and steam under a tight cover for at least thirty-five minutes.

Take out the bouquet and pass the roots through a metal strainer. The extract is to be added to the soup. Now add a large pinch of bread crumbs.

At this point you will turn the soup into a large tureen and quickly add the rapidly beaten yolks of four eggs, two wine glasses of extra thick cream and a few thimblefuls of fine butter.

Complete the liaison by adding the pieces of chicken and, with a final sprinkle of chopped parsley, the Waterzoie is ready for the table and for your delectation.

The Diseases of Hens

These are not numerous or complicated, and may be mostly avoided by proper treatment and food, which are indicated with sufficient minuteness in the foregoing observations.

Gapes  or Pip  is generally owing to drinking unwholesome or dirty water. Remove the white blister on the tip of the tongue, and wash with sharp vinegar, diluted with warm water; or compel the bird to swallow a large lump of fresh butter, mixed with Scotch snuff. It has been cured by opening the mouth and forcing a pigeon feather, with a tuft of the feathers left on the end, (the others having been stripped off,) down the windpipe, and gently turning it as withdrawn, to be repeated the following day if necessary. This detaches large numbers of a slender red worm, collected in the larynx of the throat, which impedes respiration and swallowing. A little spirits of turpentine mixed with the food is a preventive; as are also clean, whitewashed premises, and good food. After these attacks, feed for a few days with light food, soaked bran and cabbage, or lettuce chopped fine.

RoupCatarrh, or swelled head, is shown by feverish symptoms, swollen eyelids, frequently terminating in blindness, rattling in the throat, and temporary strangulation. These are accompanied with a highly offensive watery discharge, from the mouth and nostrils, loss of appetite, and much thirst. They should be placed near the fire; their head bathed in warm Castile soap-suds, or milk and water. Stimulating food, as flour or barley-meal, mustard and grated ginger, mixed and forced down the throat, Boswell says, has been effectual in their speedy restoration. This, like many other diseases, is contagious, and when it appears, the bird should be at once separated from the flock.

Flux  is cured by the yolk of an egg boiled hard; and boiled barley soaked in wine.

Costiveness  is removed by giving bran and water with a little honey; or give a small dose of castor oil.

Vermin  are destroyed by giving them clean sand and ashes to roll in, adding a little quicklime if necessary.

Entire cleanliness  is necessary for the avoidance of this and other diseases. A perfectly dry range is also essential, nor should there be too many together, as this is a fruitful source of disease.

Fig. 44. 
The Dorking

Varieties

These differ materially in their sizes, shapes, and colors.

The Dorking  is esteemed one of the best, being large, well formed and hardy, good layers and nurses, and yielding an excellent carcass. They are both white and speckled, and generally have five toes.

The Poland  is both white and black, with a large tuft, generally of white feathers, on the head. They are of good size, and excellent layers, but are seldom inclined to set, which makes them peculiarly desirable for such as wish eggs only.

The Dominique  is a speckled fowl, of barely medium size, compact, hardy, good layers, and valuable for the table. The Bucks county fowls, heretofore principally reared near Philadelphia, possess but moderate pretensions to notice, except in their immense size, a brace of capons having been fattened to 19¼ lbs. when dressed.

Fig. 45. 
The Bantam.

The Bantam  is but little larger than a pigeon, and is usually of a pure white, but is sometimes speckled. It is generally feathered to the toes, but may be bred with clean legs. It is very domestic, and a pleasant little bird around the premises, and is not unprofitable. The Game cock  is of medium weight, and yields good flesh, but is a poor layer, and an undesirable tenant for the farm-yard. Besides these, there are many fanciful varieties, as the Creeper, with excessively short legs; the Rumpless, without a tail; the Frizzled, with irregular feathers turned towards the head; the Silky  or Merino  fowl, with brown or buff down, instead of feathers; the Negro, with its black crest, wattles, skin, legs, and feathers; the Java  and Cochin China, of great size; several varieties of the Top-knot, and others.

Hens

Are the most numerous and profitable, and the most generally useful of the feathered tribe. The hen is peculiarly an egg-producing bird. She has the same predisposition for laying, that the cow has for secreting milk. Some breeds are better adapted for this object than others: but in all that have ever come within our notice, the proper food and circumstances are alone wanting, to produce a reasonable quantity of eggs.

The egg  consists of three distinct parts; the shell, the white, and the yolk. A good-sized egg will weigh 1,000 grains, of which about 107 are shell, 604 are white, and 289 are yolk. Of the shell, 97 per cent. is carbonate of lime, 1 per cent. phosphate of lime and magnesia, and 2 per cent. albumen. The white consists of 12 per cent. of albumen, 2.7 of mucus, 0.3 of salts, and 85 of water. The yolk has about 17.4 per cent. of albumen, 28.6 of yellow oil, 54 of water, with a trace of sulphur and phosphorus.

The foregoing are the constituents of eggs, which have been formed when the bird has free access to the various articles which constitute her natural food. But they vary with circumstances. When full-fed and denied all access to lime, she will form an egg without the shell, and deliver it enclosed in the membrane or sack which always surrounds the white, when covered by the shell. When scantily fed, they will frequently lay; but from a deficiency of nutriment, the egg will be meager and watery, and possess but a small portion of the nutritious qualities peculiar to them.

To produce the largest number of good eggs, several conditions are important; and they must especially have an abundance of the right kind of food. This is the most readily obtained in part from animal food. In warm weather, when they have a free range, they can generally supply their wants in the abundance of insects, earth-worms, and other animal matters within their reach. The large proportion of albumen contained in their eggs, requires that much of their food should be highly nitrogenized, and when they cannot procure this in animal matter, it must be given in grains containing it.

If to the usual qualities of hens, a breed of peculiar elegance, of graceful form, and beautiful plumage, be added, together with entire adaptation to the economical purposes required, good layers and good carcass, we have a combination of utility, luxury, and taste in this bird, which should commend them as general favorites. They can everywhere be kept with advantage, except in dense cities. A hen that costs a shilling or two, if provided with a suitable range, will consume 30 or 40 cents worth of food, and produce from 80 to 150 eggs per annum, worth three or four times the cost of feed and attention.

Fig. 42. 
Poultry House

The Hen-house

May be constructed in various ways to suit the wishes of the owner, and when tastefully built it is an ornament to the premises, It should be perfectly dry throughout, properly lighted, and capable of being made tight and warm in winter, yet afford all the ventilation desirable at any season. In this, arrange the nests in boxes on the sides, in such a manner as to humor the instinct of the hen for concealment when she resorts to them. When desirable to set the hen, these nests may be so placed as to shut out the others, yet open into another yard or beyond the enclosure, so that they can take an occasional stroll and help themselves to food, &c. This prevents other hens laying in their nests, while setting; and it may be easily managed, by having their boxes placed on the wall of the building, with a moveable door made to open on either side at pleasure. Hens will lay equally well without a nest-egg, but when broken up, they ramble off and form new nests, if they are not confined. They will lay if kept from the cock, but it is doubtful if they will thus yield as many eggs. Hens disposed to set at improper times, should be dismissed from the common yard, so as to be out of reach of the nests, and plentifully fed till weaned from this inclination.

Fig. 43. 
Egg-Hatcher, or Eccalobeon.

Fig. 43  represents an egg-hatcher or Eccalobeon, made of different sizes, with shelves so arranged as to hold from 200 to 800 eggs without touching each other. The outer box is a non-conductor, so as to retain the heat conveyed to every part by water tubes, connected by a reservoir below, the bottom of which is heated by the flame from a spirit-lamp. The temperature is indicated by a thermometer on the door inside, which should be made equal to that of the hen, say about 106° Fahrenheit. Her natural temperature is somewhat elevated by the feverish condition of the bird at the period of incubation.

Chickens  require to be kept warm and dry, for a few days after hatching, and they may be fed with hard-boiled eggs, crumbs of bread or pudding, and milk or water, and allowed to scratch in the gravel in front of the hen, which should be confined in a coop for the first three or four weeks. After this, they may be turned loose, when they will thrive on any thing the older ones eat. Many use them for the table when they are but a few weeks old; but they are unfit for this purpose, till they have attained full maturity.

The white-legs are preferred by some, from the whiteness and apparent delicacy of the meat; but the yellow-legged are the richest and most highly-flavored. The color of the feathers does not seem to affect the quality of the flesh or their character for laying. If we consider the chemical principles of the absorption and retention of heat, we should assume the white coat to be best, as it is coolest in summer when exposed to the sun, and warmest in winter. Yet some of the white breeds are delicate, and do not bear rough usage or exposure.

The Food

Of hens may consist of different kinds of grain, either broken, ground, or cooked; roots, and especially boiled potatoes, are nutritious and economical; green herbage as clover and most of the grasses, chickweed, lettuce, cabbage, &c., will supply them with much of their food, if fresh and tender.

Fig. 40 , is a Food fountain. The grain is placed in the hopper, which is closely covered, and the grain falls into the bottom below. It is accessible on four sides by spring doors, which are thrown open by the weight of the fowl on the connecting spring. One is shown as opened by the fowl in stepping up to feed. This is a protection against dirt and vermin.

Fig. 40. 
Food Fountain.

Though not absolutely essential to them, yet nothing contributes so much to their laying, as unsalted, animal food. This is a natural aliment, as is shown by the avidity with which they pounce on every fly, insect, or earth-worm which comes within their reach. It would not of course pay to supply them with valuable flesh, but the blood and offal of the slaughter-houses, refuse meat of all kinds, and especially the scraps or cracklings to be had at the inciters' shops, after soaking for a few hours in warm water, is one of the best and most economical kinds of food. Such with boiled meal is a very fattening food. Grain is at all times best for them when cooked, as they will lay more, fatten quicker, and eat much less when fed to them in this state; and it may be thus used unground, with the same advantage to the fowls as if first crushed, as their digestive organs are certain to extract the whole nutriment. All grain is good for them, including millet, rice, the oleaginous seeds, as the sun-flower, flax, hemp, &c. It is always better to afford them a variety of grains where they can procure them at their option, and select as their appetite craves.

They are also fond of milk, and especially when it has become curdled; and indeed scarcely any edible escapes their notice. They carefully pick up most of the waste garbage around the premises, and glean much of their subsistence from what would otherwise become offensive; and by their destruction of innumerable insects and worms, they render great assistance to the gardener. Of course their ever-busy propensity for scratching, is indiscriminately indulged just after the seeds have been sown and while the plants are young, which renders it necessary that they be confined in some close yard for a time; yet this should be as capacious as possible.

Fig. 41. 
Water Fountain.

Water is placed in the cask as represented in the Fig., and it is then closely stopped, except an opening through a tube leading into a vessel below. As the water is exhausted from this, it descends from the cask above, and a supply is thus at all times within reach of the poultry.

Their food is better when given to them warm, not hot, and there should always be a supply before them to prevent gorging. It is better to be placed on shelves or suspended boxes or hoppers, which are variously and cheaply constructed, to keep it clean and out of the reach of rats. Besides their food, hens ought to be at all times abundantly supplied with clean water, egg or pounded oyster shells, old mortar or slacked lime. If not allowed to run at large, where they can help themselves, they must also be furnished with gravel to assist their digestion; and a box or bed of ashes, sand, and dust, is equally essential to roll in for the purpose of ridding themselves of vermin.

Chickens  (Gallus domestica ), or Fowls, are widely distributed and almost universally raised in every rural home. Immense poultry plants have been built up in America in recent years, and the business developed to proportions of a notably distinct industry. The contributions of poultry to the nation's wealth, mostly by the hands of farmers' wives, reaches an annual total of half a billion dollars or more—an amount equal to the average value of the nation's wheat crop.

Apart from the intrinsic merits of the individual breeds, and the better understood methods of breeding and management, much progress has been due to artificial methods of hatching and rearing the young fowls. The incubator and the brooder make it possible to secure chicks at any season of the year, and thus permits the development of special branches of poultry raising, such as the production of broilers and soft roasters.

There are numerous standard varieties of chickens recognized in the United States, subdivided into four general classes, as follows: The general-purpose breeds—the American class—Plymouth Rock, the Wyandotte, and Dominique; the heavier, clumsier or meat breeds, such as the Brahma, Cochin, and Langshan; the egg breeds, as the Leghorn, Minorca, Andalusian, and Black Spanish; the ornamental breeds, as the various Bantams, and others. Some other breeds on American farms are the Rhode Island Red, Orpington, Houdan, Dorking and Hamburg.

LEADING BREEDS OF POULTRY
DESCRIBED

Brahma.—Meat breed. Two varieties, light and dark. Show heavy leg and toe feathering, thick, close plumage. General color of light Brahma, white, with black tail and black center stripes in both hackle and saddle feathers. In dark Brahma, wings of cock crossed by heavy black bar, and entire breast, body, leg and toes black. Back, wings, body and breast of female have a basis of gray on which are distinct dark pencilings. Weight for dark cocks eleven pounds, hens eight and one-half pounds; for light cocks twelve pounds, hens nine and one-half pounds. Brown egg.

Cochin.—Meat breed. Four varieties, buff, partridge, white, black. Peculiarity is an appearance of massiveness and fluffiness. Heavy, short feathering is piled high on back and extends wide at sides. Excessive thigh and shank feathering. Combs single, low, close on head and evenly serrated with five distinct points. Cocks weigh eleven pounds, hens eight and one-half pounds. Brown egg.

Dorking.—General purpose, meat especially. Three varieties, colored, white and silver-gray. Body long and deep. Carries abundance of flesh. Skin white. Colored largest cocks weigh nine pounds and hens seven pounds. White cocks weigh seven and one-half pounds, hens six pounds. Silver-gray variety is between these two. All have a fifth toe. Eggs of very light color.

Hamburg.—Egg and fancy breed. Six varieties, golden spangled, silver spangled, golden penciled, silver penciled, white and black. About size of the Leghorn. White egg.

Houdan.—General breeding purposes. Color black and white evenly broken in alternate splotches throughout entire plumage. Head ornaments of crest and beard. White skin. Carry fifth toe on each foot. Cocks weigh seven pounds, hens six pounds. White egg.

Indian.—Meat breed. Two varieties, Cornish and white. Beaks and shanks yellow. Bird of strong proportions. Back and wings of cock mixture of red and black, tail and breast black. Hen's back, wings, breast and body a rich bay penciled with black. Cocks weigh nine pounds, hens six and one-half pounds. Tinted egg.

Leghorn.—Egg production. Eight varieties, single-comb and rose-comb brown, single-comb and rose-comb white, single-comb and rose-comb buff, single-comb black and single-comb silver duck-wing. Characterized by early maturity and great activity. Large combs on the top of head. White egg.

Minorca.—Egg breed. Three varieties, single-comb black, rose-comb black, single-comb white. Long body, carried rather upright, deep at breast with back tapering sharply toward tail, which is long and carried rather low. Comb large. Ear lobes large and pure white. Cocks of rose-comb weigh eight pounds, hens six and one-half pounds. Single-combs weigh one pound heavier. White egg.

Orpington.—General purpose. Three varieties, buff, black and white. Long body, abundant plumage, white skin. Short, heavy shanks. Tendency to feathering on shanks. Cock weighs ten pounds, hen eight pounds. Egg tinted.

Plymouth Rock.—General purpose, for both meat and eggs. Three varieties, the barred, white and buff. Back and body rather long, breast broad and deep. Single combs, yellow shanks. Cocks weight nine and one-half pounds and hens seven and one-half pounds. Brown egg.

Rhode Island Red.—General purpose. Two varieties, single comb and rose-comb. Tail color black. Rhode Island red has a red surface of body plumage, with a red under color, free from slate.

Buckeye breed surface color is dark, rich garnet, and under color allows a bar of slate-color next to surface. Body of both long. Rhode Island Reds level. Buckeye body shows slight elevation in front. Weight of Rhode Island red cocks eight and one-half pounds, hens six and one-half pounds. Buckeye cocks nine pounds, hens six pounds. Brown egg.

Wyandotte.—General purpose, for both meat and eggs. Eight standard varieties, white, buff, black, silver, golden, silver penciled, partridge and Columbian. A bird of curves, back short and broad, body deep and round, breast broad and deep, with a low-set keel. Shanks short, strong and carried well apart. Colors silver, white, black, buff and mixtures. Close-fitting rose combs. Abundant fluffy, close-fitting plumage. Weight eight and one-half pounds for cocks, six and one-half pounds for hens. Brown egg.

BUSY BIDDY AND HER BROOD OF NEW-BORN CHICKS