Delhi  (Del ´lee ), since 1912 the capital of the Indian Empire is located on the right bank of the Jumna, nine hundred and fifty-four miles northwest of Calcutta. It was the capital of the Afghan or Pathan, and afterwards of the Mogul, empire. It is the terminus of the East Indian and Rajputana railways, the former crossing the Jumna by a fine iron bridge.

Delhi is walled on three sides, has ten gates, and stands on high ground, the famous palace of Shah Jehan, now the fort, looking out over the river and a wide stretch of wooded and cultivated country. To the north, about a mile distant, rises the historic “ridge,” crowned with memorials of the Indian mutiny, and commanding a fine view of the city, the domes and minarets of which overtop the encircling groves.

The palace buildings comprise the cathedral-like entrance hall, the audience hall, and several lesser pavilions, covering in all an area of one thousand six hundred feet by three thousand two hundred feet, exclusive of gateways. The beautiful inlaid work and carving of these buildings are the admiration of the world, and is worthy of its famous inscription: “If there is a heaven on earth, it is this—it is this!”

In the heart of the city stands the Jama Masjid (“great mosque”), one of the largest and finest structures of the kind in India, which also owes its origin to Shah Jehan. Among the notable monuments in the neighborhood are the imperial tombs, including that of Hamayun, second of the Mogul dynasty; the old Kala Masjid, or black mosque; and the thirteenth century Kutab Minar, ten miles to the south, which is two hundred and thirty-eight feet high, and tapers gracefully from a diameter of forty-seven feet at the base to nine feet at the summit.

Modern Delhi is noted for its broad main streets, the chief being the Chandni Chauk, or Silver Street, with its high clock tower, and the institute and museum.

Delhi has a large trade in wheat and other produce, and its bazaars are noted for gold and silver work, precious stones, shawls, and costly fabrics.