Distortion of Field

The lines of force reaching from pole to pole of an excited field magnet of a dynamo are normally symmetrical with respect to some axis and often with respect to several. They go across from pole to pole, sometimes bent out of their course by the armature core, but still symmetrical. The presence of a mass of iron in the space between the pole pieces concentrates the lines of force, but does not destroy the symmetry of the field.

When the armature of the dynamo is rotated the field becomes distorted, and the lines of force are bent out of their natural shape. The new directions of the lines of force are a resultant of the lines of force of the armature proper and of the field magnet. For when the dynamo is started the armature itself becomes a magnet, and plays its part in forming the field. Owing to the lead of the brushes the polarity of the armature is not symmetrical with that of the field magnets. Hence the compound field shows distortion. In the cut is shown diagrammatically the distortion of field in a dynamo with a ring armature. The arrow denotes the direction of rotation, and n n * * * and s s * * * indicate points of north and south polarity respectively.

The distorted lines must be regarded as resultants of the two induced polarities of the armature, one polarity due to the induction of the field, the other to the induction from its own windings. The positions of the brushes have much to do with determining the amount and degree of distortion. In the case of the ring armature it will be seen that some of the lines of force within the armature persist in their polarity and direction, almost as induced by the armature windings alone, and leak across without contributing their quota to the field. Two such lines are shown in dotted lines.

In motors there is a similar but a reversed distortion.

Fig. 169. DISTORTION OF FIELD IN A RING ARMATURE OF AN ACTIVE DYNAMO.

Fig. 170. DISTORTION OF FIELD IN A RING ARMATURE OF AN ACTIVE MOTOR.