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Electro-magnetic Attraction andRepulsion

The attraction and repulsion due to electromagnetic lines of force, which lines always tend to take as short a course as possible and also seek the medium of the highest permeance. This causes them to concentrate in iron and steel or other paramagnetic substance and to draw them towards a magnet by shortening the lines of force connecting the two. It is exactly the same attraction as that of the permanent magnet for its armature, Ampére's theory bringing the latterunder the same title. In the case of two magnets like poles repel and unlike attract. In the case of simple currents, those in the same direction attract and those in opposite directions repel each other. This refers to constant current reactions. Thus the attraction of unlike poles of two magnets is, by the Ampérian theory, the attraction of twosets of currents of similar direction, as is evident from the diagram. The repulsion of like poles is the repulsion of unlike currents and the same applies to solenoids, q. v. (See Magnetism and do Ampére'sTheory of; Induction; Electro-magnetic Induction)