White population previous to 1850, mainly trappers, prospectors and missionaries; permanent settlement began with discovery of gold, 1860; organized as Territory, 1863.

Area, 84,800 square miles; length in west, 485 miles, and on Wyoming boundary, 140 miles; width, 45 miles in north, and nearly 300 miles in south. Drainage mainly by Salmon and Snake rivers and their tributaries. Number counties, 15.

Temperature at Boisé City: winter, 30° to 40°; summer, 68° to 75°.

Boisé City, the capital, and contains national bank and penitentiary. Florence and Silver City are flourishing mining towns. Railroad mileage, 777; Northern Pacific crosses northern part.

Extreme north well timbered and much fertile land; extreme southeast populated almost entirely by Mormons, chiefly farmers; 4,480,000 acres suitable for agriculture, and 5,000,000 for grazing, most of the ranges being as yet unoccupied. Latest reports give, cattle, 220,612; sheep, 187,500; swine, 24,780.

Cash value per acre of corn in 1883, $18; wheat, $13.77; rye, $11.79; oats, $21.31; barley, $21.30; potatoes, $73.44; hay, $10.40.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,000
Auditor 1,800
Librarian 250
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
$4 a day and
20c. mileage.
2 Dist. Attorneys 250 & fees
Col. Int. Rev.2,250
3 Dep. Collectors 1,400 to 1,600
Assayer 2,000
Asst. Assayer 1,440
Chart of Increase in Farm Crops 1870-1880 (Idaho)
Clerk $1,000
Asst. Melter 1,200
Surveyor Gen'l 2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Draftsman 1,500
Messenger 600
Indian Agents.
Fort Hall $1,500
Lemhi 1,100
Nez Perces 1,600
Presidential P. O.
Bellevue $1,200
Boise City 1,800
Hailey 1,200
Ketchum 1,000
Lewiston 1,200

Most of the gold is found in Idaho, Boisé and Alturas counties; silver, in Owyhee county; some of the mines being very rich. Gold production, 1883, $1,500,000; silver, $2,000,000. Wood River District on southern slope of Salmon River Mountains, at headwaters of Wood or Malade river, gives promise of valuable mining operations. Coal in vicinity of Boisé City. Ranks sixth in gold and silver.

Manufactures, chiefly production of flour and lumber, and smelting of ores.

Population, 32,610: males, 21,818; female, 10,792; native, 22,636; foreign, 9,974; white, 29,013; colored, 53; Chinese, 3,379; Indians, 165

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature biennial, in even-numbered years, meeting second Monday in December; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each.

Voting population, 14,795; native white, 7,331; foreign white, 4,385; colored, 3,126.

School population, 9,650; school age, 521.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, 18; usury forfeits three times excess of interest.

Map of Idaho