Kaleidoscope

The Kaleidoscope Thought to Be Anticipated

In the seventh edition of a work on gardening and planting, published in 1739, by Richard Bradley, F.R.S., late Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge, we find the following details of an invention, “by which the best designers 44  and draughtsmen may improve and help their fancies. They must choose two pieces of looking-glass of equal bigness, of the figure of a long square. These must be covered on the back with paper or silk, to prevent rubbing off the silver. This covering must be so put on that nothing of it appears about the edges of the bright side. The glasses being thus prepared, must be laid face to face, and hinged together so that they may be made to open and shut at pleasure like the leaves of a book.” After showing how various figures are to be looked at in these glasses under the same opening, and how the same figure may be varied under the different openings, the ingenious artist thus concludes: “If it should happen that the reader has any number of plans for parterres or wildernesses by him, he may by this method alter them at his pleasure, and produce such innumerable varieties as it is not possible the most able designer could ever have contrived.”

Sir David Brewster's Kaleidoscope

The idea of this instrument, constructed for the purpose of creating and exhibiting a variety of beautiful and perfectly symmetrical forms, first occurred to Sir David Brewster in 1814, when he was engaged in experiments on the polarisation of light by successive reflections between plates of glass. The reflectors were in some instances inclined to each other; and he had occasion to remark the circular arrangement of the images of a candle round a centre, or the multiplication of the sectors formed by the extremities of the glass plates. In repeating at a subsequent period the experiments of M. Biot on the action of fluids upon light, Sir David Brewster placed the fluids in a trough, formed by two plates of glass cemented together at an angle; and the eye being necessarily placed at one end, some of the cement, which had been pressed through between the plates, appeared to be arranged into a regular figure. The remarkable symmetry which it presented led to Dr. Brewster's investigation of the cause of this phenomenon; and in so doing he discovered the leading principles of the Kaleidoscope.

By the advice of his friends, Dr. Brewster took out a patent for his invention; in the specification of which he describes the kaleidoscope in two different forms. The instrument, however, having been shown to several opticians in London, became known before he could avail himself of his patent; and being simple in principle, it was at once largely manufactured. It is calculated that not less than 200,000 kaleidoscopes were sold in three months in London and Paris; though out of this number, Dr. Brewster says, not perhaps 1000 were constructed upon scientific principles, or were capable of giving any thing like a correct idea of the power of his kaleidoscope.