Mongolian  (mon-gō´li-än ).—The second in Blumenbach's classification of the races of mankind. The chief characteristics are broad cheekbones, low, retreating forehead, short and broad nose, and yellowish complexion. It included the Chinese, Japanese, Turks, Tartars, Indo-Chinese, Lapps, etc. The Mongolian and the Caucasian are the two largest races, or divisions, of mankind,—the latter being somewhat the larger because it includes the greater part of the population of India.

Just as the Caucasian race extends into southwestern and southern Asia, so the Mongolian race extends far into Europe, embracing not only the Lapps of Scandinavia, the Finns, Cossacks, and many other peoples of Russia, and the Turks of southern Europe, but even the Magyars of Hungary, the most advanced of all the Europeans of Mongolian origin. The main western branches of the Mongolians, although Europeanized in blood as well as in culture, still possess a Mongolian speech.

Brinton divides the Mongolian race into two great branches, the Sinitic and the Sibiric.

The word “Sinitic” is derived from the late Latin Sina, China. It comprises that branch of the Mongolian race of which the Chinese, Indo-Chinese, and Tibetan groups are the chief representatives.

The Sibiric branch of the Mongolian race comprises the Japanese, Arctic, Tungusic, Finnic, Tataric, and Mongolic groups, and therefore all the Mongolian peoples which have invaded Europe, such as the Finns, Lapps, Magyars, and Osmanlis or Turks.


The Mongolian  race, according to Pickering, includes the inhabitants of part of China and all the north-eastern parts of Asia, also the aborigines of North and South America, with the exception of a tract of land on the south-western coast, including what is now California, and part of the United States. This race is probably the most numerous in the world. The complexion of the Mongolian is decidedly yellowish brown, but rather pale withal (it is well seen in the Chinese); the head is flattened from before to behind, and expanded from side to side, so that in some well-marked cases the head is as broad as it is long, the eyes are drawn upwards at the outer angles, and appear wide apart, from the inner angle, being but little prolonged inwards, the cheek-bones are prominent; the eyes black, and the hair black and straight. The best specimens of this family are the Tartars and Chinese. The Chinese are highly skilful in most of the useful arts, especially in agriculture. Their history extends very far back, and probably the longest series of recorded events in existence, being continuous for a period of about 4,000 years, during the whole of which time they have been in a state of civilisation nearly the same as they are at the present time.


The aboriginal tribes of America belong to this family. Dr. Latham derives their origin from the Esquimaux (or Eskemo), and their migration from north-eastern Asia, Kamschatka, and the Aleutian Islands, to the eastern or Pacific shores of America.

The Chinese and Tartars are of a decidedly yellow tint. The Americans are of a dark copper-coloured hue, hence their designation "Red Indians."