Formerly a part of Idaho; became a Territory, 1864; received about 2,000 square miles from Dakota, 1873.

Area, 146,080 square miles; length, east and west, 460 to 540 miles; average breadth, 275 miles. Drained by the Missouri and its tributaries and the tributaries of the Colorado. Number of counties, 14

Temperature at Virginia City, winter, 17° to 30°; summer, 55° to 65°: rainfall seldom exceeds 12 inches per annum.

Three U.S. districts; court held twice a year at Helena, twice at Virginia City, and three times at Deer Lodge. Helena, the capital and most important town. Railroad mileage, 1,032; Northern Pacific extends through the Territory from east to west.

Immense areas cultivable land; cereal productions, 1882, were 1,857,540 bu., of which 1,100,000 were oats; potatoes yielded 300,000 bu., and hay 93,000 tons. Wheat crop in 1884, 1,372,000 bu.; oats, 1,740,000 bu. Some varieties of corn grown in portions of Territory, but generally too cold.

Grazing interest of value; estimated area valuable grazing land, 100,000 square miles; great extent of plains and mountain valleys yet untouched by herdsmen. Latest returns give 686,839 cattle, 465,750 sheep, and 17,544 swine.

Salaries Territorial Officers.
Governor $2,600
Secretary 1,800
Treasurer 1,500
Auditor 1,500
Supt. Public Instruction 1,200
Chief Justice 3,000
2 Asso. Justices 3,000
$4 pr. day and
20 c. mileage.
Surveyor Gen.2,500
Chief Clerk 1,800
Chf. Draftsman 1,600
Col. Int. Rev 2,500
5 Deputy Colls. Internal Rev.1,600
Assayer 2,500
Melter 2,250
Chart of Gold Production from Placer (alluvial) Fields by Territory - headed by Montana
Indian Agents.
Blackfeet $1,800
Crow 2,000
Flathead 1,500
Presidential P. O.
Billings $1,500
Bozeman 1,800
Butte City 2,500
Deer Lodge City 1,500
Dillon 1,400
Fort Benton 1,600
Glendive 1,100
Helena 2,500
Livingston 1,600
Miles City 1,600
Missoula 1,700
Virginia City 1,000

One of richest mining countries in the world; mineral wealth almost inexhaustible. Product for 1879 was $3,629,000, of which ⅔ was gold and ⅓ silver; product, 1880, was $3,822,379, of which ⅔ was silver and ⅓ gold; production, 1882, $6,920,000, of which ⅔ was silver and ⅓ gold.

Manufacturing interests mainly smelting works, and flour and lumber mills. Ranks fifth in silver and in gold.

Population, 39,139; male, 28,177; female, 10,982; native, 27,638; foreign, 11,521; white, 35,385; colored, 346; Chinese, 1,765; Indians, 1663

Territorial and congressional elections, Tuesday after first Monday in November; number Senators, 12; Representatives, 24; sessions of legislature, biennial, in odd-numbered years, meeting second Monday in January; limit of session, 60 days; terms of Senators and Representatives, 2 years each. Voting population, 21,544; native white, 12,162; foreign white, 7,474; colored, 1,908.

School population, 10,482; school age, 4-21; graded schools in Deer Lodge City, Virginia City and Helena.

Legal interest rate, 10; by contract, any rate.

Map of Montana