Monument

Astronomy and Dates on Monuments

Astronomy is a useful aid in discovering the Dates of ancient Monuments. Thus, on the ceiling of a portico among the ruins of Tentyris are the twelve signs of the Zodiac, placed according to the apparent motion of the sun. According to this Zodiac, the summer solstice is in Leo; from which it is easy to compute, by the precession of the equinoxes of 50″·1 annually, that the Zodiac of Tentyris must have been made 4000 years ago.

Mrs. Somerville relates that she once witnessed the ascertainment of the date of a Papyrus by means of astronomy. The manuscript was found in Egypt, in a mummy-case; and its antiquity was determined by the configuration of the heavens at the time of its construction. It proved to be a horoscope of the time of Ptolemy.

n. A structure intended to commemorate something which either needs no commemoration or cannot be commemorated.

  The bones of Agammemnon are a show,
  And ruined is his royal monument,

but Agammemnon's fame suffers no diminution in consequence. The monument custom has its reductiones ad absurdum in monuments "to the unknown dead"—that is to say, monuments to perpetuate the memory of those who have left no memory.

MORAL, adj.  Conforming to a local and mutable standard of right.
Having the quality of general expediency.

  It is sayd there be a raunge of mountaynes in the Easte, on
  one syde of the which certayn conducts are immorall, yet on the other
  syde they are holden in good esteeme; wherebye the mountayneer is much
  conveenyenced, for it is given to him to goe downe eyther way and act
  as it shall suite his moode, withouten offence.

  Gooke's Meditations