Octopod

The octopods have a saclike body with eight arms of about equal size, in some kinds thick and short, in others long and snaky. Every arm has along its underside a double row of round, muscular suckers without horny rims; and whatever is seized by one or more of these arms is drawn into the mouth at their base, where it is bitten by a beaklike jaw of sharp horn, and further devoured by means of a toothed tongue similar to the radula of gastropods. Nearly all are tropical, but some species exist in deep water considerably to the northward. Certain species are used as food in many parts of the world, and are considered a delicacy in Italy and other Mediterranean countries. The fishermen of Japan and the Philippines capture them by the simple process of lowering big earthen urns and leaving them on the bottom overnight; when they are hauled up in the morning many will contain entrapped devilfish, as sailors call them, which at once go to market.

A very singular octopod is the little argonaut, or "paper sailor." Its body is not larger than a walnut—that is the body of the female, for the male is only a tenth of that bigness. Its home is mainly in the tropics and in deep water, but in the summer spawning season it rises to the surface, and is occasionally met with far northward on the Gulf Stream, drifting, apparently, in a snug little boat. The two dorsal arms are expanded into broad, roundish membranes at their ends, and old stories said that they were used as sails—a supposition of much use to poets; but the "boat," shaped somewhat like the shell of the nautilus, is not a shell proper, but a membranous pouch secreted by the mantle in spawning time, and not vitally attached to the body, but held in place beneath it by the two broadened arms, and serving as a receptacle for eggs and a cradle for the embryos hatching from them.