Ohmmeter

An instrument for measuring directly the resistance of a conductor or of any part of a circuit through which a strong current is passing. It is the invention of Prof. W. E. Ayrton.

It contains two fixed coils at right angles to each other acting on the same needle of soft iron. One coil is of thick wire and is placed in series with the resistance to be measured. The other is of very thin wire and is placed in parallel with the same resistance. One wire acts by the total current, the other by the potential difference between the ends of the resistance. The action on the soft iron needle is due to the ratio of potential difference to total currents, or to the resistance itself. By properly designing and proportioning the coils the angular deflections of the needle are made proportional to the resistance.

In use the thick wire may be kept permanently in circuit. On connecting the binding posts of the thin wire coil to any two parts of the circuit its resistance is at once given by the deflection of the needle.

When no current is passing the needle rests in any position. A current in the thick coil brings it to zero. A current simultaneously passing through the thin high resistance coil brings about the deflection.

The instrument is a commercial rather than a scientific one.