PEWS. Enclosed seats in churches. They did not come into use until the middle of the 17th century, and almost belong to the past now. But long before pews there were appropriated seats. The first mention of a "reading pew," or desk, in the body of the church, for the minister, is in 1596: previous to that time his place was in the chancel.

PHILIP (St.) AND St. JAMES'S DAY. May 1. There seems to be no adequate reason for the coupling together of these two Apostles. In the Greek Church their festivals are observed separately. Of St. Philip we have notices only in St. John, and early tradition speaks of his preaching in Pamphylia. Of St. James the Apostle, the son of Alphaeus, sometimes supposed to be the same as "James the Less," or the Little, of Mark xv. 40, we know nothing except his name in the Apostolic catalogue. In the Epistle for this day he is identified with James, the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, and author of the Epistle bearing his name. But this identification is very uncertain.