Photography

The Best Sky for Photography

Contrary to all preconceived ideas, experience proves that the brighter the sky that shines above the camera the more tardy the action within it. Italy and Malta do their work slower than Paris. Under the brilliant light of a Mexican sun, half an hour is required to produce effects which in England would occupy but a minute. In the burning atmosphere of India, though photographical the year round, the process is comparatively slow and difficult to manage; while in the clear, beautiful, and moreover cool, light of the higher Alps of Europe, it has been proved that the production of a picture requires many more minutes, even with the most sensitive preparations, than in the murky atmosphere of London. Upon the whole, the temperate skies of this country may be pronounced favourable to photographic action; a fact for which the prevailing characteristic of our climate may partially account, humidity being an indispensable condition for the working state both of paper and chemicals.—Quarterly Review, No. 202.

Magic of Photography

Professor Moser of Königsberg has discovered that all bodies, even in the dark, throw out invisible rays; and that these bodies, when placed at a small distance from polished surfaces of all kinds, depict themselves upon such surfaces in forms which remain invisible till they are developed by the human breath or by the vapours of mercury or iodine. Even if the sun's image is made to pass over a plate of glass, the light tread of its rays will leave behind it an invisible track, which the human breath will instantly reveal.

Among the early attempts to take pictures by the rays of the sun was a very interesting and successful experiment made by Dr. Thomas Young. In 1802, when Mr. Wedgewood was “making profiles by the agency of light,” and Sir Humphry Davy was “copying on prepared paper the images of small objects produced by means of the solar microscope,” Dr. Young was taking photographs upon paper dipped in a solution of nitrate of silver, of the coloured rings observed by Newton; and his experiments clearly proved that the agent was not the luminous rays in the sun's light, but the invisible or chemical rays beyond the violet. This experiment is described in the Bakerian Lecture, 1803.

Niepce (says Mr. Hunt) pursued a physical investigation of the curious change, and found that all bodies were influenced by this principle radiated from the sun. Daguerre[1] produced effects from the solar pencil which no artist could approach; and Talbot and others extended the application. Herschel took up the inquiry; and he, with his usual 45  power of inductive search and of philosophical deduction, presented the world with a class of discoveries which showed how vast a field of investigation was opening for the younger races of mankind.

The first attempts in photography, which were made at the instigation of M. Arago, by order of the French Government, to copy the Egyptian tombs and temples and the remains of the Aztecs in Central America, were failures. Although the photographers employed succeeded to admiration, in Paris, in producing pictures in a few minutes, they found often that an exposure of an hour was insufficient under the bright and glowing illumination of a southern sky.

[1] Some time before the first announcement of the discovery of sun-painting, the following extract from Sir John Herschel's Treatise on Light , in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana , appeared in a popular work entitled Parlour Magic : “Strain a piece of paper or linen upon a wooden frame, and sponge it over with a solution of nitrate of silver in water; place it behind a painting upon glass, or a stained window-pane, and the light, traversing the painting or figures, will produce a copy of it upon the prepared paper or linen; those parts in which the rays were least intercepted being the shadows of the picture.”