Rose gardening

Soil, Situation, and Planting

The most suitable soil is a strong, rich loam, or vegetable mould mixed with about one-quarter its bulk of well-decomposed stable manure. If the soil of the garden where the roses are to be planted differs materially from this, it should be made to approach it as nearly as possible by the addition of the requisite soil and manure. In a good vegetable garden, the soil, with the addition of a little manure, will grow the Rose well. When the soil, however, is of an inferior character, holes should be dug three or four times the size of the roots of a well-grown rose bush and filled with compost of the above character.

Rivers recommends, as the best compost for roses, rotten dung and pit-sand for cold, clayey soils; and for warm, dry soils, rotten dung and cool loams. He also states that he has found night soil, mixed with the drainings of the dunghill, or even with common ditch or pond water, so as to make a thick liquid, the best possible manure for roses, poured on the surface of the soil twice in winter—one to two gallons to each tree. The soil need not be stirred until spring, and then merely loosened two or three inches deep, with the prongs of a fork; for poor soil, and on lawns, previously removing the turf, this will be found most efficacious. He directs this compost to be applied in the first two winter months, but as our ground is frequently frozen so hard then that it cannot absorb the liquid, it would probably be best to apply it in this country a month earlier. Where a bed or border of roses is to be planted, it is well to dig out the soil to the depth of two or two and a half feet; fill the bottom to the depth of six inches with small stones, and then replace the earth, well fertilized, as directed above. Nothing is more injurious to the Rose than a wet, retentive subsoil; and where expense and trouble are no object, this perfect draining is much the best calculated to ensure a thrifty growth and perfect bloom. A rich and dry soil is, in fact, all-important; for otherwise the most double flower will frequently become single or semi-double. We have seen a plant of La Reine produce a perfect flower in the green-house, and when removed to an inferior soil, produce flowers almost single. It may therefore be safely laid down as a rule, that it is impossible to make the soil too rich for the Rose, and that in proportion to the fertilizing matter contained therein, provided it is properly decomposed, will be the approximation of the plant and the flower to perfection. The fertility of the soil may be very much assisted by frequent applications of liquid manure, made either of cow dung or guano; the former is always safe; the latter, valuable if properly used, may, in the hands of a careless person, ruin the plant.

In these remarks on fertility of soil, we have no desire to discourage those who may not have a fertile soil, or the means of obtaining the elements of fertility. The Rose will grow and bloom in any soil; the wood will be healthy, but short and small; the flower will be produced, but, as we have said before, will be smaller and often semi-double; yet even under these disadvantages, it is still the most desirable flower for the poor man; none other can so cheaply and so well ornament his small yard, or hanging in graceful festoons about his windows, shed forth its bloom and sweetness to enliven his hours of relief from labor, and give his children happiness, from the association of pleasant thought with natural beauty. But the poor man has within his reach more than he supposes of the elements of fertility. The ashes of his hearth, the decomposed turf of the road-side, and the domestic manure, too generally thrown away, all contain some of the best fertilizing matter, and with proper care could be made amply sufficient for the production of his flowers and vegetables. The decomposed turf alone would grow roses admirably, although a little manure would be a useful addition.

 

SITUATION.

The best situation for the Rose is an eastern or northern exposure, rather than a southern; the intensity of the heat of our midsummer often affects injuriously the expansion of the flowers, their color, and fragrance. A useful degree of shade can be obtained by planting amidst groups of dwarf roses, pillars, trellises, obelisks, etc., on which climbing roses can be trained, and whose shadow, changing with the sun, would protect the opening bloom and answer the same end as a cool situation. While, however, the Rose requires a cool, airy locality, it should by no means be placed entirely in the shade; a portion of the sun's rays is always necessary to ensure a good bloom. It is from this cause that the bloom of roses is much more certain and perfect in France and this country than in England. In the latter country, the sun is scarcely ever sufficiently powerful to develop all the resources of a plant. The summer of 1846 was unprecedentedly hot throughout England, and all the horticultural journals united in pronouncing the bloom of roses that season unsurpassed by the bloom of any previous year. For climbing roses the situation should not be too exposed, or where they would be liable to encounter heavy winds, which might break off the young shoots and in other ways injure the plant. Most of our American cities possess in the culture of roses a great advantage over the large towns of England, in the use of anthracite instead of bituminous coal; for, according to Loudon, the Rose will not thrive in towns where the prevailing fuel is of this character, and the bloom will not compare with those produced some ten miles distant. “The first effect of the smoke is to prevent the flower buds from opening freely, next to diminish their number; the leaves then gradually become smaller, and the length of the shoots less, after which the plant weakens by degrees, and in a few years, if a standard, it dies altogether, or, if a dwarf, barely exists, and seldom if ever flowers.”

Such a result, from such a cause, is rarely known here, and the resident of the city may have his little yard filled with roses whose bloom will be in no way inferior to that of the plants in an extensive lawn or garden.

 

PLANTING.

All those roses that bloom only once in the year, and also the Perpetuals, or Remontant Roses, can be planted in autumn, after the first severe frost. The ends of the roots, which have been broken in taking up, will then form a callus, and the soil will be so thoroughly settled about the roots by the winter rains, that the plant will commence forming new roots early in the spring, and will rapidly make strong and luxuriant shoots. As far north as New York and its vicinity, the Bourbons and the Bengal, with their sub-classes, being more delicate, should not be planted until spring.

If the subsoil is wet and retentive of moisture, the planting of any roses should be deferred until spring, but from our preceding remarks it will be borne in mind that such soil should be well drained before planting, in which case the autumn will still answer.

The plant should be taken up carefully, with all the root possible, bearing in mind that the elements of life are in the root, and every fibre that is lost is so much taken from the future health and prosperity of the plant. The root should then be carefully examined, and every portion that has been bruised should be cut off; all the broken ends should also be cut away as far as they are split or injured. Any root of the character of a tap-root, or growing directly down into the earth, should be cut off; for it is best to encourage only lateral roots, which can more readily partake of the benefits of the rain and sun, and can more effectually absorb the nutriment in the soil.

In the spring the hole for each plant should be dug somewhat larger than the root, and the bottom forked, or dug up, and if necessary enriched with the surface soil, which, it is presumed, has been prepared according to preceding directions. Let one hold the plant, while another throws in the soil; or if one alone is planting, let him hold the stem just above the root with one hand, and throw in the soil with the other, moving the stem from side to side, and occasionally pulling it upward a little and shaking the root until the soil has worked well among the fibres; on which much of the subsequent prosperity of the plant depends. If the weather is dry, a little water may be placed in the hole, which should then be filled up and the soil well trodden down about the stem. When planted, it should be very little, if at all, lower in the ground than before; very little of the stem should be buried; and when trodden down, the root should be made firm and solid.

In planting climbing or pillar roses, care should be taken to set the trellis, or pillar, or whatever may be used for their support, before the plant is put in the ground; for if such should be set after the plant has commenced growing vigorously, it will in all probability damage the roots, and give the plant a check from which it will not recover during the whole season.

The Rose, even in the best soils, should be taken up every three or four years, and have its roots shortened and pruned; a portion of the soil in which it grew should also be removed and replaced by soil of the character before described. Where the soil is poor, they should be taken up every other year, and replanted, after renewing the soil as above, or digging it with plenty of manure.

Van Mons states that in Belgium the plants are uniformly taken up at the end of eight years and placed in fresh soil, or they are thrown away and young plants substituted in their place. This substitution of young plants is perhaps the most certain mode of ensuring a continual supply of strong, healthy wood and well-formed flowers.

The Rose may be transplanted at any season, provided the shoots are pruned closely and deprived of all their leaves, and the soil in which they are planted kept well watered. The flowering also may be retarded in this way, and those roses that bloom only once in the season, if they are transplanted just before they are coming into flower, and properly pruned, will bloom in autumn. The autumn and spring, or the dormant season, however, is the proper period for all transplanting.

Whether planted in autumn or spring, if purchased of a nurseryman, they should be ordered  in the autumn. In the spring, as soon as the frost is out of the ground, the first few warm days, operating upon their excitable nature, will start them into growth. If then the nurseryman has a large number of orders on hand, some of them will inevitably be delayed until the plants have grown too much. If ordered in the autumn, the purchaser should not expect to receive them before the 10th or 15th of November. No nurseryman who values his reputation will allow roses to leave his grounds before the vegetation is checked by several heavy frosts, and the wood and roots allowed time thereafter to thoroughly ripen. Dealers who desire roses early, in order to deliver with other plants, sometimes rebel at this; but purchasers should understand that roses will not flourish unless the wood and roots are thoroughly ripe. This applies more particularly to the Remontant, Moss, and June roses. The Tea, China, and Noisette, will bear taking up at any time, but their roots will rarely be in a condition to endure the cold as far north as New York without some protection. When received from the nurseryman in the autumn, they should be carefully and separately heeled-in in a dry piece of land, and covered with sand. A covering of litter should be avoided, because it affords a harbor for mice, who would soon destroy the plants.

Plants from the open ground are always to be preferred by the purchaser. Those sold in pots in the spring have frequently been forced, and will require a long period of rest before growing again, while those from the open ground, having had their rest, will grow luxuriantly at once.

It should also be remembered by the purchaser that the delicate roots of the Rose will not bear exposure to the air. All reputable nurserymen understand this, and pack in moss. Dealers, however, who purchase of these nurserymen, and who have many lots to deliver after they are unpacked, are often not sufficiently careful to guard the roots against exposure. The plants then failing to grow well, the fault is attributed to some deficiency in the plant, rather than to its true cause. To ensure safety while being delivered, dealers should dip them, as soon as unpacked, in a puddle of mud of the consistency of thick paint. This precaution is useful in every case after unpacking and before planting, for there must always be some delay and exposure even when the purchaser obtains plants directly from the grower.

Pruning, Training, and Bedding

In pruning roses at the time of transplanting, the principal object to be attained is relief to the plant by taking away all the wood and branches which the diminished root may not be able to support. The mode of pruning depends very much upon the condition of the plant. If it is very bushy, all the weaker branches should be cut away, leaving not more than three or four of the strongest shoots, and shortening even those down to a few eyes. If it is desired that the plant should continue dwarf and bushy, the new wood should be cut down to the lower two eyes, and every half-grown or slender shoot cut out. These two eyes will each throw out a branch; then cut these branches down to the two eyes, and again cut back the shoots they produce until a symmetrical habit is formed, with close, thick foliage. There should not be sufficient wood allowed to remain to make the bush crowded; and if there should be danger of this, some of the branches, instead of being cut down to two eyes, should be removed altogether.

Climbing roses, when planted, should be cut down almost to the ground, and also carefully thinned out. Only a few of the strongest branches should be preserved, and the new wood of these cut down to two eyes each.

The preceding remarks are applicable to roses at the time of planting; they should also be pruned every year,—the hardy varieties in the autumn or winter, and the more tender in the spring. For all roses that are not liable to have part of their wood killed by the cold, the autumn is decidedly the best time for pruning; the root, having then but little top to support, is left at liberty to store up nutriment for a strong growth the following season. The principal objects in pruning are the removal of the old wood, because it is generally only the young wood that produces large and fine flowers; the shortening and thinning out of the young wood, that the root, having much less wood to support, may devote all its nutriment to the size and beauty of the flower; and the formation of a symmetrical shape. If an abundant bloom is desired, without regard to the size of the flower, only the weak shoots should be cut out, and the strong wood should be shortened very little; each bud will then produce a flower. By this mode, the flowers will be small, and the growth of new wood very short, but there will be an abundant and very showy bloom. If, however, the flowers are desired as large and as perfect as possible, all the weak wood should be cut out entirely, and all the strong wood formed the last season should be cut down to two eyes. The knife should always be applied directly above a bud, and sloping upward from it. The preceding observations apply principally to rose bushes, or dwarf roses; with pillar, climbing, and tree roses, the practice should be somewhat different. The former two need comparatively little pruning; they require careful thinning out, but should seldom be shortened. The very young side shoots can sometimes be shortened in, to prevent the foliage from becoming too thick and crowded.

Pillars for roses can be made of trellis work, of iron rods in different forms, or of wood, but they should enclose a space of at least a foot in diameter. The cheapest plan, and one that will last many years, is to make posts of about 1½ or 2 inches square, out of locust or pitch-pine plank, and connect them with common hoop-iron. They should be the length of a plank—between twelve and thirteen feet—and should be set three feet in the ground, that they may effectually resist the action of the wind. The Rose having been cut down to the ground, is planted inside of the pillar, and will make strong growths the first season. As the leading shoots appear, they should be trained spirally around the outside of the pillar, and sufficiently near each other to enable them to fill up the intermediate space with their foliage. These leading shoots will then form the permanent wood, and the young side shoots, pruned in from year to year, will produce the flowers, and at the flowering season cover the whole pillar with a mass of rich and showy bloom. Figure 5 gives the appearance of a pillar of this kind. If the tops of the leading shoots die down at all, they should be shortened down to the first strong eye, because, if a weak bud is left at the top, its growth will be slender for a long time. The growth of different varieties of roses is very varied; some make delicate shoots, and require little room, while others, like the Queen of the Prairies, are exceedingly robust, and may require a larger pillar than the size we have mentioned. Figure 6 shows the method of constructing a pyramid by the use of a central post and iron rods.

Fig. 5.—PILLAR ROSE.Fig. 6.—ROSE PYRAMID.

 

Fig. 7.—A ROSE ARBOR.

 

Climbing roses require very much the same treatment as pillar roses, and are frequently trained over arches, or in festoons from one pillar to another. In these the weak branches should also be thinned out, and the strong ones be allowed to remain, without being shortened, as in these an abundant bloom is wanted, rather than large flowers. An arbor, made by training roses from one pillar to another, is represented in figure 7. In training climbing roses over any flat surface, as a trellis, wall, or side of a house, the principal point is so to place the leading shoots that all the intermediate space may be filled up with foliage. They can either be trained in fan-shape, with side shoots growing out from a main stem, or one leading shoot can be encouraged and trained in parallel horizontal lines to the top, care being taken to preserve sufficient intermediate space for the foliage. Where no shoots are wanted, the buds can be rubbed off before they push out. No weak shoots should be allowed to grow from the bottom, but all the strong ones should be allowed to grow as much as they may. When the intermediate space is filled with young wood and foliage, all the thin, small shoots should be cut out every year, and the strongest buds only allowed to remain, which, forming strong branches, will set closely to the wall and preserve a neat appearance.

The production of roses out of season, by forcing, was, as we have shown, well known to the ancient Romans, and from them has been handed down to the present time. But the retarding of roses by means of a regular process of pruning owes its origin to a comparatively modern date. This process is mentioned both by Lord Bacon and Sir Robert Boyle. The latter says: “It is delivered by the Lord Verulam, and other naturalists, that if a rose bush be carefully cut as soon as it is done bearing in the summer, it will again bear roses in the autumn. Of this, many have made unsuccessful trials, and thereupon report the affirmation to be false; yet I am very apt to think that my lord was encouraged by experience to write as he did. For, having been particularly solicitous about the experiment, I find by the relation, both of my own and other experienced gardeners, that this way of procuring autumnal roses will, in most rose bushes, commonly fail, but succeed in some that are good bearers; and, accordingly, having this summer made trial of it, I find that of a row of bushes cut in June, by far the greater number promise no autumnal roses; but one that hath manifested itself to be of a vigorous and prolific nature is, at this present, indifferently well stored with those of the damask kind. There may, also, be a mistake in the species of roses; for experienced gardeners inform me that the Musk Rose will, if it be a lusty plant, bear flowers in autumn without cutting; and, therefore, that may unjustly be ascribed to art, which is the bare production of nature.” Thus, in quaint and ancient style, discourses the wise and pious philosopher on our favorite flower, and also mentions the fact, that a red  rose becomes white  on being exposed to the fumes of sulphur. This, however, had been observed before Sir Robert's time. Notwithstanding his doubts, it is now a well-established fact, that the blooming of roses may be retarded by cutting them back to two eyes after they have fairly commenced growing, and the flower buds are discoverable. A constant succession can be obtained where there is a number of plants, by cutting each one back a shorter or longer distance, or at various periods of its growth. In these cases, however, it very often will not bloom until autumn, because the second effort to produce flowers is much greater than the first, and is not attended with success until late in the season.

However desirable may be this retarding process, it cannot be relied on as a general practice, because the very unusual exertion made to produce the flowers a second time, weakens the plant, and materially affects its prosperity the subsequent year.

There is, indeed, but one kind of summer pruning that is advantageous, which is the thinning out of the flower-buds as soon as they appear, in order that the plant may be burdened with no more than it can fully perfect, and the cutting off all the seed vessels after the flower has expanded and the petals have fallen. Until this last is done, a second bloom cannot readily be obtained from the Bengal Rose and its sub-classes, the Tea and Noisette, which otherwise grow and bloom constantly throughout the season.

We would impress upon our readers the absolute, the essential, importance of cultivation—of constantly stirring the soil in which the Rose is planted; and we scarcely know of more comprehensive directions in a few words than the reply of an experienced horticulturist to one who asked the best mode of growing fine fruits and flowers. The old gentleman replied that the mode could be described in three words, “cultivate, cultivate, cultivate.” After the same manner, we would impress the importanceof these three words upon all those who love well-grown and beautiful roses. They are, indeed, multum in parvo —the very essence of successful culture. The soil cannot be plowed, dug, or stirred too much; it should be dug and hoed, not merely to keep down the weeds, but to ensure the health and prosperity of the plant. Cultivation is to all plants and trees manure, sun, and rain. It opens the soil to the nutrition it may receive from the atmosphere, to the beneficial influence of light, and to the morning and evening dew. It makes the heavy soil light, and the light soil heavy; if the earth is saturated with rain, it dries it; if burned up with drought, it moistens it. Watering is often beneficial, and is particularly so to roses just before and during the period of bloom; but in an extremely dry season, if we were obliged to choose between the watering-pot and the spade, we should most unhesitatingly give the preference to the latter.

We do not wish, however, to undervalue the benefits of water. If the plants are well mulched with straw, salt hay, or any other litter, frequent watering is very beneficial. When not mulched, the watering should always be followed by the hoe, in order to destroy the baking of the surface. While the plants are in a growing state, liquid manure will give a larger and a finer bloom. This liquid manure may be made with soapsuds, or the refuse from the house. When these are not easily obtained, half a bushel of cow or horse dung can be placed in a barrel, which can then be filled with water, well stirred up, and allowed to settle a day or two before being used.

For those who are willing to incur the expense, a very nice way of applying pure water is to sink ordinary tile, two inches in diameter, with collars, about a foot below the surface, around and through the rose bed. An elbow from this, coming to the surface, can convey the water into the pipes, through the joints of which it will escape, and thus irrigate the whole ground, without baking the surface.

 

BEDDING ROSES.

While Remontant, Moss, and Garden Roses are adapted to the wants of much the larger number of growers, because they require no protection in winter, and are strong and robust in their growth and habit, yet the ever-blooming varieties are becoming daily more popular. While but few of the Remontants have more than two seasons of distinct and abundant bloom, the Teas, Chinas, and Noisettes, bloom constantly and continuously. In grace, and color, and beauty, these last have more varied charms than the more hardy and abundant Remontants, and the difficulty of caring for them in the winter, even by those who have no glass, is compensated by the additional pleasure they give in the summer. Those who have glass can enjoy them winter and summer alike. Their superiority in constant blooming, especially, adapts them for planting in masses or beds scattered about the lawn. These beds can be each of one color, or they can be assorted, or can be planted in the ribbon style, rows of white, or red, or yellow alternating. No bedding flowers, Verbenas, Salvias, or any other plant, will give so constant pleasure as Roses. They can be purchased, also, nearly as cheaply as ordinary bedding plants, and are found in several places as low as $15 per 100, or $100 per 1,000. On being taken out of the pots they will grow rapidly, and bloom after they are thoroughly established, and afterward, year after year, they will commence blooming early, and continue until frost. A bed made in any part of the lawn, and in any soil, will grow them well, provided it has a dry bottom, and has some well-decomposed manure dug in it. A light, sandy soil will grow them in the greatest perfection. They can be planted eighteen inches to two feet apart, and the new shoots, as soon as they have attained sufficient length, should be pegged down, so as to cover the whole ground. The branches thus laid down will give abundant flowers throughout their whole length, and from each bud a strong-rooted shoot will be thrown up, and being pruned down close in the autumn, will be ready to produce a strong and bearing shoot another year. If they become too close and crowded, the new shoots can be partially cut away. North of Baltimore, these Roses will need protection in the winter. This can be done by covering the bed with sand, several inches deep, or by taking up the plants, cutting them down, heeling them in in a dry cellar, or potting them for a green-house.

Multiplication By Seed and Hybridizing

We have described, in former pages, the various modes of cultivating the Rose, and of propagating the many beautiful varieties which exist, and would now briefly advert to a mode of developing still farther the beauty which lies hid within the horny covering that protects the dormant germ of vitality—in other words, of obtaining new varieties by seed. With the making of the seed-bed commenced a new era in the culture of the Rose, and advancing with rapid strides, it made more progress in forty years than in centuries before. The Dutch seem to have been the first to raise roses from seed, by the same mode which they applied successfully to their tulips, hyacinths, etc., and from the time that this mode became generally employed, the varieties of roses began to increase. In this species of cultivation the French soon outstripped their Dutch neighbors, and gained the reputation which they still retain, of preëminent skill in the production of new varieties of roses from the seed.

From 1805 to 1810, the Empress Josephine, whose love for flowers is well known, collected at her favorite residence, Malmaison, the choicest varieties of the Rose that could be obtained from Holland, Germany, and Belgium, and thus gave an increased impulse to the culture of roses in the vicinity of Paris.

According to De Pronville, a French writer, there were, in 1814, only 182 varieties of roses, and the advantage of multiplication by seed is sufficiently evinced by the fact that there are now more than 6,000 varieties, the poorest of which are much better than any which existed at that day. Among the earliest cultivators of roses from the seed, were three Frenchmen: Dupont, Vilmorin, and Descemet. The former was the gardener of the Empress Josephine. When the allied armies entered Paris, in 1815, the garden of Descemet contained 10,000 seedling roses, which Vibert, in his anxiety to secure from destruction, succeeded in carrying to his garden in the interior.

In England, very little attention seems, at that time, to have been paid to the production of new varieties from seed, and the English relied very much upon the continent for their choice roses. Now, however, they are abundantly redeeming their reputation, and many fine varieties have been produced by English rose-growers, at the head of whom stands Rivers, whose efforts are seconded by Wood, Paul, Lane, and others. They are still, however, compelled to yield to the French cultivators; for to these we are indebted for our very finest roses—for Lamarque, Solfaterre, La Reine, Chromatella, the new white Perpetuals, Souvenir de Malmaison, and others.

The varieties of roses became increasingly great after the introduction of the Bengals, Noisettes, Teas, and Bourbons—all these classes producing readily from seed, and in endless variety. There still remains a willingness to cast aside the old for the new, and however much we may regret this disposition, for the sake of some old and truly deserving favorites, we cannot feel willing to denounce it, for it exhibits a gratifying evidence of a desire for improvement, and the existence of a spirit of progress, which, dissatisfied with things as they are, is continually striving after nearer approaches to perfection. If, in this strife, some of our old favorites have been cast aside, we are more than abundantly compensated for their loss by the new claimants to our regard.

Those who intend to raise new roses from seed should select varieties differing as much as possible in color and habit, and possessing broad, thick, and well-formed petals; their stamens should also be visible, and their pistils perfect; for perfectly double flowers, in which all the organs of propagation—the stamens and pistils—are changed into petals, never yield seed. These should be planted together in a rich soil, and as far as possible from any other roses. If there are among them any two varieties whose peculiarities it is desired to unite in a single plant, place these next to each other, and there may possibly be such an admixture of the pollen as will produce the desired result.

Care should be taken not to affect the proper maturity of the seed by taking off the petals, but allow them to fall by their own decay. The seed should be perfectly mature before it is gathered, which will be immediately after the first hard frost. After the hips have been gathered, the seeds can be taken out with the point of a knife, or, if there is a large quantity, they can be put on a table and bruised with a wooden roller; the covering of the seeds is so tough that they cannot easily be injured. When the hip is sufficiently bruised, it can be plunged into a vessel of water; and by continued friction, the seeds can be easily separated from the pulp which surrounds them, and will generally fall to the bottom. After being dried a few days in the shade, they should be placed just beneath the surface, in pots filled with fine sand, or peat earth, where they can be kept until wanted for planting in the spring. The seeds which are not thus placed in sand soon after they are gathered will not grow until the second, and if delayed very long, until the third year. In this case, however, their germination can be hastened by sowing them in earthen pans, which are placed upon a hot-bed or under a glass frame. The seeds being thus planted immediately after being gathered, the sand should be kept moistened through the winter, and the pots put out of the reach of frost. Mice are very fond of these seeds, and will destroy them unless they areprotected. The pots should be kept out of all heat, excepting what may be required to keep the frost from them, until the first of April, in this latitude, and at the South, earlier; this is requisite, in order to prevent their germinating before all danger of frost is past in the open air. At the time the pots or pans are brought from their sheltered place into a warm temperature, beds for the plants should be made in the open air, that they may be ready the moment they are required. For these an eastern aspect is the best, and in our hot climate, on the north side of a fence would answer very well; if they are in an open piece of ground, they should be sheltered by an awning from the hot sun. The soil should be a rich, light sandy mould, with a little peat, if convenient, and should be finely pulverized. The seeds should now be closely watched, and the moment they are seen pushing up the sand, in order to obtain light, they should be taken out singly with the point of a knife, taking a small portion of the sand with them. The bed having been previously watered, and raked fine, drills can be made, half an inch deep and about a foot apart, in which the germinating seeds can be placed, at a distance of six inches from each other, and then carefully covered with finely pulverized soil. Having commenced germinating in the pots, the seeds, now in the genial warmth of a spring sun, but protected from its fiercest rays, will soon show their heads above the ground, and striking deep root in the rich soil, grow rapidly. While the plants are small, care should be taken to keep the ground constantly moist.

We are aware that this process is somewhat new with rose seeds, although it has been long practiced with Rhododendrons and other plants, but we are convinced of its superiority to the old mode. The delicate roots of young plants are very susceptible of injury by change, and many are frequently lost by the first potting; this risk is avoided by transplanting the seed before the first root fibre is formed, and when, being in the act of germination, there can be no possible danger of its rotting, which is frequently a serious objection to sowing seeds at once in the open ground. The trouble and risk of loss occasioned by subsequent re-pottings are also avoided, and the plants have, by this mode, full liberty to grow as luxuriantly as they choose, with only the slight attention required by watering and shading. As the plan of Rivers is materially different, we will give his directions in detail, admitting, at the same time, that, under some circumstances, it may be preferable to that we have presented above.

“The hips of all the varieties of roses, will, in general, be fully ripe by the beginning of November; they should then be gathered and kept entire, in a flower pot filled with dry sand, carefully guarded from mice. In February, or by the first week in March, they must be broken to pieces with the fingers, and sown in flower pots, such as are generally used for sowing seeds in, called ‘seed pans'; but for rose seeds they should not be too shallow; nine inches in depth will be enough. These should be nearly, but not quite, filled with a rich compost of rotten manure and sandy loam, or peat; the seeds may be covered, to the depth of about half an inch, with the same compost; a piece of kiln wire must then be placed over the pot, fitting closely at the rim, so as to prevent the ingress of mice, which are passionately fond of rose seeds; there must be space enough between the wire and the mould for the young plants to come up—half an inch will probably be found enough; the pots of seed must never be placed under glass, but kept constantly in the open air, in a full sunny exposure, as the wire will shade the mould and prevent its drying. Water should be given occasionally, in dry weather. The young plants will perhaps make their appearance in April or May, but very often the seed does not vegetate until the second spring. When they have made their ‘rough leaves,' that is, when they have three or four leaves, they must be carefully raised with the point of a narrow pruning-knife, potted into small pots, and placed in the shade; if the weather is very hot and dry, they may be covered with a hand-glass for a few days. They may remain in those pots a month, and then be planted out into a rich border; by the end of August those that are robust growers will have made shoots long enough for budding.” Until the plants have become firmly rooted, and, in fact, through the most of the first summer, they should be protected from the heat of the sun; a cheap mode of doing this is to put up rough posts, connect them by pieces of wood, lay rough slats across these, and cover the whole with straw or cornstalks; but a much neater covering is a good canvas awning, supported by posts, which can be taken down when not needed, and will last many years. The Bourbons and Bengals, with the Teas and Noisettes, will sometimes bloom the first season; but as the plant will be weak, a correct opinion cannot be formed of its character until the second summer. The summer roses, or those which bloom only once in the season, never show bloom until their third, and sometimes not until their fourth and fifth year. It is well to let all the plants remain in the seed-bed until the fifth year, as some which prove unpromising at first may result in something really good. All that prove bad the fifth year can be marked for destruction, or cut down to receive the buds of the good varieties. In order to obtain a good bloom as soon as possible, it is well to have ready some strong stocks of the Greville, Mannetti, or any other free-growing rose, into which buds can be inserted of any of the seedlings whose habit and general appearance promise good flowers, and whose growth has been sufficient to furnish good buds. The next spring the stock should be cut down to the bud, which will then make luxuriant shoots, and produce flowers the same season, if an Everblooming variety; but if one of the Summer roses, not until the next season. The third spring let every branch be cut down to three or four eyes, when it will more fully develop its character, and will often continue improving until its fifth or sixth year.

The first winter, the young plants will require protection from the cold by some kind of litter, and the Bengal, Tea, and Noisette varieties will always need it during the winter. Where there are any plants of these latter, whose habit and appearance promise something excellent, they can be potted on the approach of winter, kept in a cool temperature, free from frost, and replanted in the spring.

When it is desired that the young plant should possess the properties of two well-known flowers, resort is had to artificial impregnation.

Although the existence of sexuality in plants appears to have been known to the ancients, and is mentioned not only by Pliny, Claudian, and Theophrastus, but also by Ebu-Alwan, in a work on agriculture written originally in Chaldaic; yet it does not seem to have been generally admitted by botanists, until announced by Linnæus in 1731. From this time the possibility of the existence of hybrid plants was admitted, and Linnæus, with many subsequent authors, published observations tending to show that, even in the natural state, new species were formed by two different plants, the pistil of one having been fecundated by the stamens of the other. This impregnation has been artificially applied, by modern cultivators, to the production of new varieties of fruits and flowers. With the Geranium, Fuchsia, Pæony, Pansy, and other flowers, it has produced remarkable results. The mode of impregnating the Rose artificially has been so little practiced with us, and has been so well described by Rivers, that we prefer detailing the process in his own words:

“When it is desirable the qualities of a favorite rose should preponderate, the petals of the flower to be fertilized must be opened gently with the fingers. A flower that will expand in the morning should be opened the afternoon or evening previous, and the anthers all removed with a pair of pointed scissors. The following morning, when this flower is fully expanded, it must be fertilized with a flower of some variety of whose qualities it is desired to have seedlings largely partake. It requires some watchfulness to open the petals at the proper time; if too soon, the petals will be injured in forcing them open, and in hot weather, in July, if delayed only an hour or two, the anthers will be found to have shed their pollen. To ascertain precisely when the pollen is in a fit state for transmission, a few of the anthers should be gently pressed with the finger and thumb; if the yellow dust adheres to them, the operation may be performed; it requires close examination and some practice to know when the flower to be operated upon is in a fit state to receive the pollen; as a general rule, the flowers ought to be in the same state of expansion, or, in other words, about the same age.

“To exemplify the process, we will suppose that a climbing Moss Rose, with red or crimson flowers, is wished for: the flowers of the Blush Ayrshire, which bear seed abundantly, may be selected, and before expansion, the anthers removed; the following morning, or as soon after the operation as these flowers open, they should be fertilized with those of the Luxembourg Moss; if the operation succeed, seed will be procured, from which, the probability is, that a climbing rose will be produced with the habit and flowers of the Moss Rose, or at least an approximation to them. I mention the union of the Moss and Ayrshire Roses by way of illustration, and merely to point out to the amateur how extensive and how interesting a field of operations is open in this way. I ought to give a fact that has occurred in my own experience, which will tell better with the sceptical than a thousand anticipations. About four years since, in a pan of seedling Moss Roses, was one with a most peculiar habit, even when very young; this has since proved a hybrid rose, partaking much more of the Scotch Rose than of any other, and until the plant arrived at full growth, I thought it a Scotch Rose, the seed of which had by accident been mixed with that of the Moss Rose, although I had taken extreme care. To my surprise it has since proved a perfect hybrid, having the sepals and the fruit of the Provence Rose, with the spiny and dwarf habit of the Scotch Rose; it bears abundance of hips, which are all abortive. The difference in the fruit of the Moss and Provence Rose, and that of the Scotch, is very remarkable; and this it was which drew my particular attention to the plant in question. It was raised from the same seed, and in the same seed-pan, as the single crimson Moss Rose. As this strange hybrid came from a Moss Rose accidentally fertilized, we may expect that art will do much more for us.

“It is only in cases where it is wished for the qualities of a particular rose to predominate, that the removal of the anthers of the rose to be fertilized is necessary: thus, if a yellow climbing rose is desired by the union of the Yellow Brier with the Ayrshire, every anther should be removed from the latter, so that it is fertilized solely with the pollen of the former. In some cases, where it is desirable to have the qualities of both parents in an equal degree, the removal of the anthers must not take place: thus I have found, by removing them from the Luxembourg Moss, and fertilizing that rose with a dark variety of Rosa Gallica, that the features of the Moss Rose are totally lost in its offspring, and they become nearly pure varieties of the former; but if the anthers of the Moss Rose are left untouched, and it is fertilized with Rosa Gallica, interesting hybrids are the result, more or less mossy.”

There is no branch of rose culture possessing more interest for the amateur, with whose leisure its prosecution is compatible. The constant care and attention required, in order to ensure success, place it in a great measure beyond the limits of a large commercial establishment. The great desideratum at this time is a double, yellow, climbing rose. If the Harrison Rose were fertilized with the Queen of the Prairies, or the latter with the Solfaterre or Chromatella, a rose might possibly be obtained with the rich yellow of the Harrison Rose, and the robust habit and beautifully formed flower of the Queen of the Prairies. While, however, we recommend this mode of artificial impregnation, we would by no means discourage the sowing of seeds whose flowers have not thus been fecundated. The seed of the Harrison Rose, or of any of the yellow roses, may, if perseveringly saved from generation to generation, produce a yellow climbing rose. In fact, we are inclined to think that among all the reputed hybrids, a much less number than is supposed owe their origin to a crossed fecundation. It is a fact generally admitted by botanists, that all varieties of plants will generally produce from their seed plants very dissimilar, preserving, perhaps, some peculiarities of their parents, but differing in many essential particulars.

It will thus be perceived that, in the simple sowing of seeds, where there is a dislike to the trouble of artificial impregnation, there is a wide field for experiment and for successful result. But to those who have the leisure and the patience to transfer from one plant to another its fertilizing matter, it forms a pleasant amusement, with rather a greater probability of satisfactory results. In either case, every amateur of roses should have his seed-plat; and if, out of a thousand, or even five thousand roses, he should obtain one good variety, and differing from any other known, he will be conferring an important service upon rose-culture, and will encourage others to pursue the same course, until we shall be in no wise behind either France or England in this interesting branch of horticulture.

Potting and Forcing

“Seek Roses in December, ice in June.”—Byron.

Every variety of Rose, in the hands of a skillful man, will grow and bloom well in pots, although the Bengal and its sub-classes, and the more dwarf Hardy Roses, are the most easily managed. The great point in potting is to imitate planting in the open ground as nearly as possible. The soil used should possess all the nutritious elements required in the open ground, and, if possible, in somewhat greater abundance. More manure should be used, because the frequent watering required by plants in pots must inevitably wash away a portion of the fertilizing matter. There is nothing better than one portion of stable manure, and three of turf, or leaf-mould, all well decomposed, and mixed with a little pure peat earth. A portion of night-soil, well incorporated with charcoal, is also very excellent. Charcoal is the most powerful absorbent known; it retains the nutritious elements in the night-soil, prevents their being washed away by watering, and gives them out as the plant needs them. English gardeners should bear in mind that roses require in this climate a stronger soil than in England. Half-gallon pots are the best size at first, from which, by repeated pottings, corresponding with the growth of the plant, they can be shifted to one or two-gallon pots. The size of the pots should, however, be regulated by the extent of the roots; it should be just sufficiently large to allow the roots to go in without crowding. A few broken pieces of pots or small lumps should be put in the bottom for drainage. When the plant is to be taken from the open ground, select one, the roots of which are not too large, and with a sharp spade cut around it a ball of earth about the size of the pot, depriving it at the same time of a portion of its top, as directed in remarks on pruning. It should stand in this state about a fortnight, until the roots have become callused, and the plant is somewhat accustomed to the loss of its roots and branches. It can then be safely taken up at any season, and transferred to the pot, which should then be filled in with earth, firm and solid. If potted in the autumn, after the leaves have fallen and the wood become mature, the above previous preparation is not required, but the plant can be taken up without a ball of earth, and after being pruned of its bruised or broken roots, placed in the pot. It should then be protected from the frost and light until it has entirely recovered from its change of habitation, when it can be placed in any cool spot free from frost, until it is wanted for forcing.

Roses may, without difficulty, by the above previous management, be forced to bloom in the latter part of winter, but where their bloom is desired at Christmas or New-Year, they should be gradually prepared for the space of a year previous. To produce roses the latter part of winter, our own management has been simple and effective, giving us as many flowers as a green-house and vinery full of pots could afford. After putting the plants in pots, as directed above, pruning them down to eight or ten buds, and hardening them in a shady place, they are removed to the vinery before the frost out of doors can have injured them, and cut down to two buds. The house is then kept as cool as possible, while the frost is carefully excluded by a light fire at night, and on fine days the sashes are opened, and plenty of air admitted. They are thus kept in a dormant state until the first of the year, when the heat is gradually increased to about 70° by day, sinking as low as 35° at night. Care is taken to give them sufficient watering, and in their whole management to subject them as nearly as possible to the conditions of open culture. When the green-fly appears, it is immediately destroyed by fumigation with tobacco, and the plants are subsequently syringed with clean water. With this management, they soon begin to show signs of life, the bud commences pushing forth its delicate, light green shoot, the leaves then appear, the plant, soon growing with luxuriance, is clothed with rich foliage, and about the middle of the third month, the house presents a mass of thrifty growth and perfect bloom.

By the means above described, roses may be forced into bloom the latter part of winter; and by observing some care to bring them into the house at different periods, in regular succession, a bloom can be enjoyed through all the spring months, until roses bloom in the open ground. This process cannot, however, be continued two years in succession without weakening the plant; and although, if placed in a shady spot, and allowed to rest during the summer, it may sufficiently recover to perform the same work another year, it is desirable, if possible, to have fresh plants, whose strength has not been exhausted by the unusual effort attending the production of flowers out of season.

The preceding directions apply more particularly to late forcing; and although the same means, with an earlier application of heat, will produce flowers early in winter, yet the true art of early forcing consists in gradually  bringing the Rose out of its season; and it is only by this mode that thrifty plants and perfect flowers can be produced before Christmas.

Two years, and sometimes three, should be employed in preparing a Rose for early forcing. Having been prepared by digging around it with a sharp spade some two weeks previously, the plant should be taken up immediately after the first frost, placed in a cold frame a few days, to harden, and then taken to the green-house or vinery. A moderate heat should then be given it, with plenty of light and air to prevent its being drawn. The flower-buds should be plucked off as soon as they appear, and no bloom should be allowed. It will thus make fine growths, and can be plunged in the open ground as soon as danger of frost has passed in the spring. Here it can remain during the summer, to ripen its wood, and will require no care except a little watering in dry weather, and an occasional taking up and examination, that the roots may not push through the hole of the pot, and become fixed in the ground, in which case the plants would make too strong a growth, and suffer on being removed from the new-made root. In October it can be placed in a pot one size larger, pruned by thinning out all the weak branches, and shortening the strong ones down to two eyes. It should then go through the same process as before, carefully picking off all the flower-buds, promoting its growth until completed, when let it be put in a cold frame until all danger of frost is over, and then plunge it in the ground to ripen its wood. As its vegetation was started a month earlier the last year, it can now be taken up in September, repotted and pruned as before, and then taken into the green-house. The temperature should then be gradually raised to about 55° until the plant has commenced growing, and then gradually increased to 65° or 70°, giving as much air as can be obtained without lowering the temperature.

All useless shoots should be kept down, and all the flower-buds taken off that threaten to be abortive. In fumigating for the green-fly, care should be taken not to do it too strongly, but repeated and gentle doses at night are better. We have known many fine plants ruined by fumigation in the hands of an inexperienced person. A good bloom can be obtained the second year by this mode; but if the amateur has the patience to wait until a third, he will be rewarded by a thrifty and compact habit, rich foliage, and beautiful bloom for two months before Christmas; and if there are a number of plants to be brought into the green-house a week after each other, he can have them in bloom until the late forced roses appear. At all periods subsequent to their commencement, care should be taken to give them sufficient moisture, and as much air as is consistent with the state of growth and the external temperature. Without water, they will neither grow nor bloom well. Under glass, every other day, and in some cases, twice a week is sufficient.

The great principle to be borne in mind in forcing roses is, that sudden excitement is fatal, and that a plant should never be taken from the open ground into a heated house without being gradually prepared for it. This principle is particularly applicable to deciduous roses. The Remontant and Bourbon, the Bengal and its sub-classes, which grow and bloom through the whole year, are not so liable to be injured by exciting treatment.

Cuttings of these that are struck in the spring and planted out in the open ground may have their tops slightly pruned, and their buds all pinched off during the summer, to encourage the formation of wood and of a close head.

About the last days of summer, or the first of autumn, they can be taken up and placed in quart pots, with a soil composed of one half loam, one quarter cow-dung, and one quarter peat. After being slightly pruned, and left in the shade for a week, they can be placed in frames, protected at night from frost, and exposed to the air in mild weather for some two months, when they can be removed, a few at a time, into the green-house, and subjected to a moderately increased temperature. They will soon bloom well, and will succeed each other throughout the winter and spring, until roses bloom in the open air. Like the deciduous roses, they require to be protected against the green-fly by syringing, and if that does not answer, by fumigation with tobacco.

The Bengal, however, like the deciduous roses, will bloom better the second winter than the first, by shifting them into larger pots, pruning them, cutting off all the flower-buds, and giving them very little water the latter part of summer. They can then be put into the frames, and treated as before. The Bengal Rose is very easily forced in this way; and if the temperature is at first kept during the day at 45°, and gradually increased to 60°, there can be little difficulty in obtaining beautiful and healthy plants. This temperature can be obtained in any green-house or vinery. The latter is becoming more common, and when it is provided with heating apparatus, there can be nothing better for roses. We have forced them very successfully in one of our own vineries, one hundred and twenty feet long, twelve feet wide, ten feet high in the rear, three and a half in front, and heated by hot water. But as there may be many who desire a cheaper structure, we will give the description of one used by Rivers, (the best rose-grower known), with his mode of managing roses in a structure of that character. “A pit, ten or twelve feet long, and eight feet wide, just high enough to stand upright in, with a door at one end, and a sunken path in the centre, a raised bed on each side of the path, and an 18-inch Arnott's stove at the farther end, opposite to the door, with a pipe leading into a small brick chimney outside, (a chimney is indispensable), will give a great abundance of forced roses from February to the end of May. To ensure this, a supply must be kept ready, so that, say twenty may be placed in the forcing pit about the middle of December, a like number in the middle of January, and the same about the middle of February; they must not be pruned till taken into the house, when each shoot should be cut back to two or three buds for the formation of strong shoots. The fire should be lighted at seven in the morning, and suffered to burn out about the same hour in the evening, unless in frosty weather, when it must be kept burning till late at night, so as to exclude the frost; and for this purpose, double mats should be placed on the lights. The thermometer should not, by fire heat, be higher in the day than 70° during December, January, and February; at night it may sink to 35° without injury. The temporary rise in a sunny day is of no consequence, but no air must be admitted at such times, or the plants will exhaust themselves, and immediately shed their leaves. When the sun begins to have power, and in sunny weather, toward the end of February, the plants may be syringed every morning about 10 o'clock with tepid water, and smoked with tobacco at night on the least appearance of the Aphis, or green-fly. To ensure a fine and full crop of flowers, the plants should be established one year in pots, and plunged in tan or sawdust, in an open, exposed place, that their shoots may be well ripened; the pots must be often removed, or, what is better, place the pots on slates, to prevent their roots striking into the ground. With the Remontant or Perpetuals, even if only potted in November previous, a very good crop of flowers may often be obtained, and a second crop better than the first; for the great advantage of forcing Remontant roses is, that after blooming in the green-house or drawing-room, their young shoots may be cut down to within two or three buds of their base, and the plants placed again in the forcing-house, and a second crop of flowers obtained. The same mode may be followed also with the Bourbon, China, and tea-scented roses; with the latter, indeed, a third crop may be often obtained. Toward the end of March, when the second crop of flowers is coming on, the plants may be gradually inured to the air, by opening the sashes in mild weather. This will make them hardy and robust. Syringing should be practiced every morning and evening; but when the flower-buds are ready to open, this must be confined to the stems of the plants and the pots; otherwise the flowers will be injured by the moisture. Air must at first only be given about noon; care must be taken to remove the plants from the forcing-house to the green-house or drawing-room before their blossoms expand; they may then be kept in beauty many days. We have not found the check which the plants receive by this sudden change of temperature at all detrimental. During their second growth, the plants should be watered once a week with manure-water, and the surface of the pot occasionally stirred. Two pounds of guano to ten gallons of water forms the very best species of liquid manure; this should be stirred before it is used.

“The treatment recommended for roses in a pit with Arnott's stove may be pursued with roses in a house with smoke-flues or hot-water pipes. Arnott's stove is recommended as an economical and eligible mode of heating, practiced here to some extent with success for several years. On these stoves an iron pan, fitted to the top, should always be kept full of water. Roses may be forced slowly, but with perhaps greater certainty by the uninitiated, by giving air freely and constantly in mild weather during the day, keeping the fire constantly burning during the same period, as recommended when keeping them closely shut up.”

We have copied the whole of this article, although in a measure a repetition of previous remarks, since it may be interesting to some to know the opinion of so eminent a cultivator on this least understood branch of rose culture. A few of his directions are somewhat different from those we have given before, and may be far better than our own plan, in the climate of England. Here, an Arnott's stove would scarcely heat a pit to 70° with the thermometer at zero; and if it should, we would think it rather dangerous to give so high a temperature at once. The strength of guano is also so varied, that we should feel very cautious in using it according to the above receipt. While, however, we would not venture to question the general utility of his directions, we may perhaps say, that we have found our own plan effective in its results, and productive of thrifty plants and beautiful flowers. We would advise cultivators to test them both, and adopt that which succeeds best in their hands. A pit of the above description can be constructed at a very low price, and should be found on the premises of every gentleman of even very moderate income, for the supply of his parlors during winter. If, in addition to this, there were constructed on the east side of the house, and facing south, a little room with a glass front and roof, opening into the parlor, and heated either by a valve from the house furnace, or by a water-back connected with the parlor grate, more enjoyment would be afforded the lover of flowers than could be obtained by any other outlay of two hundred dollars. This room could then be kept constantly filled with roses from the pit, and through the most dreary winter, amid rain, snow, and storm, would present a bright array of the living reminders of spring and summer. It is a matter of much surprise, that, among all the beautiful country residences in the vicinity of our large cities, surrounded by all the appliances of luxury and comfort that taste and wealth can afford, so few instances are found in which the drawing-room or parlor opens into a green-house or conservatory. These buildings are frequently placed at a distance from the house, and although they may be filled with the most beautiful and rare exotics, are, during the greater part of the winter, inaccessible to the ladies of the family.

Let gentlemen of wealth, then, place their vineries anywhere, but use them as forcing-houses when the vines are in a dormant state. Let them also have a green-house or conservatory opening from the drawing-room, into which all the plants can be brought from the vinery whenever they show signs of bloom. This conservatory can be heated by hot water, flowing through iron pipes from a boiler placed over the furnace that warms the drawing-room—taking from this very little heat, and yet abundantly warming the conservatory. An improvement could still farther be made, by having the east end of the conservatory arch over a carriage drive, and thus allow visitors to enter the drawing-room through the conservatory. Exclusive of the delight afforded visitors by this very pleasant addition to a dwelling, it affords a delightful promenade for the ladies of the family, where, while all is wintry without, and walking is unpleasant, even when the ice-bound trees are glittering in the clear sunlight, they may luxuriate amid roses and jasmines, breathing air fragrant with the perfume of daphne and orange flowers, and surrounded with everything that can remind them of the beauty and bland climate of the sunny south.

We have occupied so much space with the peculiarities of culture for the forcing-house, that we had almost forgotten that more humble, but no less pleasure-giving mode of Window culture. As this culture is practiced chiefly by those who cannot spare the time nor incur the expense of previous preparation, the best mode is that given for late forcing of roses, taken up the autumn previous, placing the plants in pots seven inches in diameter, and using a soil composed of equal parts of sand, loam, and manure, or peat, loam, and manure. They can be watered with manure-water every fortnight, made from the drippings of the barn-yard, or, what is more pleasant, a safely weak solution of guano, about one pound to fifteen gallons.

The plants should be brought into the heat gradually; first into a cold room where there is no frost, and then into the sitting-room, where they can be placed in the window, and turned around every week, in order to give each side of the plant its share of light. They will soon begin to put forth their thrifty shoots, in some six weeks will present a fine show of beautiful flowers, and, if properly managed, will continue blooming through the winter. If attacked by the green-fly, the plant can be inverted in a strong decoction of tobacco, or it can be fumigated by being placed under an inverted barrel, or other receptacle, with some burning tobacco. For window culture, the Everblooming Roses are the best, and they should be ordered of the nurseryman in suitable pots. This mode commends itself to all; it is within the reach of the daily laborer; the seamstress can have it in her window, and in the midst of her toilsome duties, be reminded by its bright flowers of many a green spot in past days. It is especially suited to the means and leisure of the operatives in our factories, many of whom have left the country and all its green fields and pleasant flowers for the crowded city, where they can have no garden, but simply this little pot to remind them of past pleasures, and throw a gleam of sunshine over their hours of relief from labor. The plant can be placed in their chamber window, or in the windows of the factory, where the high temperature, if it has been brought from the chamber, will soon bring out its foliage in great luxuriance, and its flowers in beauty, and be a pleasant object of care in the moments snatched from the operations of the loom. To this class we would especially commend the Rose; as thriving under simple treatment, as possessing, more than any other flower, the elements of beauty, and tending, like other flowers, to keep alive in a crowded city that freshness and purity of feeling that distinguished their country life, and which, unless there exists an unusual perversion of the moral faculties, must always result from an intimate acquaintance with natural objects.

Diseases and Insects Attacking the Rose

Brave Rose, alas, whose art thou? In thy chair
    Where thou didst lately so triumph and shine
A worm doth sit, whose many feet and hair
    Are the more foul the more thou art divine.
This, this hath done it; this did bite the root
    And bottom of the leaves, which, when the wind
Did once perceive, it blew them under foot,
    Where rude, unhallow'd steps do crush and grind
        Their beauteous glories. Only shreds of thee,
        And those all bitten, in thy chair I see.
Herbert.

 

The diseases to which the Rose is liable are generally owing either to the presence of various Cryptogamic plants, or to the attacks of certain insects whose larvæ are supported at the expense of the plant. Among Cryptogamic parasites which have been observed upon rose-bushes, and which infest chiefly the Provence and other rough-leaved roses, the following are the most troublesome:

Rust.—The rust, when examined by a magnifier, is found to consist of minute yellow spots, each of which is a fungus, Lecythea Rosæ. It is common and injurious to roses, as it frequently covers all the leaves. The most effectual mode of preventing its spreading is to cut off with care and burn all the infected branches, which will sometimes render necessary the destruction of the whole plant.

Mildew.—The minute fungus which produces mildew is called by botanists Sphærotheca pannosa. It appears like a gray mould on the smaller stems and blistered leaves. It is a very troublesome enemy to the Rose, and will sometimes put at defiance every application for its destruction. The most effectual is smoking with sulphur, dusting with dry flowers of sulphur, or syringing with sulphur water. The former should only be practiced by a skillful hand, as too much sulphur-smoke will sometimes entirely kill the plant.

Mould  is due to a minute gray fungus, Peronospora sparsa, and manifests its presence by the appearance of irregular pale brownish spots upon the upper surface of the leaf. Upon the under surface of these spots the mould will be found.

Other species of fungi attack the Rose, but they are not sufficiently troublesome to the cultivator to need enumeration here.

The insects  which infest the Rose are quite numerous, and their attacks are more or less injurious. The majority of those which are found on the plant in the state of perfect insects are comparatively harmless. The most injurious are those whose larvæ feed on the leaves and pith of the trunk and limbs, and thus destroy the plant; while the perfect insect, like the Green-fly, will simply stop the growth and impair the health of the tree, by fastening upon the green and tender bark of the young shoots, and devouring the sap. It is highly desirable that amateur cultivators should devote more time to the study of Entomology, for upon an intimate acquaintance with the habits of these minute depredators depends, in a greater degree than is generally supposed, the success of cultivation. Our own leisure is so limited, that we have been able to devote very little time to this subject; and we can find no work that treats in detail the insects that attack the Rose. We simply give some account of the most troublesome ones drawn mainly from Harris' Insects Injurious to Vegetation.

Green-Fly , or Plant-Louse .—Aphis Rosæ.—This very common insect is a scourge to roses, from the facility of its reproduction, and its numerous progeny sometimes entirely cover the leaves, the young sprouts, and the flower buds. Devouring the sap, they are very injurious, and, when numerous, sometimes destroy the plant, while they soil every part on which they collect. The most common species is of a pale green, but there is a variety of a dingy yellow. Many are destroyed by small birds, but they have other enemies, as the larvæ of the Coccinellas, or Lady-birds, and other insects destroy large numbers. The first eggs of the Green-fly are deposited in the autumn, at the base of the buds, and are hatched in the early part of the following spring. Generation after generation is then rapidly produced, numbering sometimes eight or ten before autumn. These are produced alive, and without the intervention of the male. Reaumur estimated that a single Aphis might produce six thousand millions in one summer. The first hatching can be prevented by washing the plant with soft soap and water, or with whale-oil soap, before the buds commence swelling. When the plant is infested with them, it can be washed with tobacco-water and then rinsed in clean water. If in a house, fumigation with tobacco is better. An English writer recommends washing in a decoction of an ounce of quassia to a quart of water, as a very effective and safe remedy. Fumigation is, however, the must thoroughly searching remedy, and can be easily applied to plants in the open air, by means of an empty barrel inverted over the plant, and a pan of burning tobacco.

Gall-Flies.—Several species of Cynips, or Gall-flies, attack the rose, their punctures, made for the purpose of depositing their eggs, being followed by variously formed excrescences containing the larvæ. The Bédéguars, formed by the puncture of the Cynips Rosæ, were formerly employed in medicine as astringents. Harris enumerates the American species as follows:

Cynips bicolor.—“Round, prickly galls, of a reddish color, and rather larger than a pea, may often be seen on rose-bushes. Each of them contains a single grub, and this in due time turns to a gall-fly. Its head and thorax are black, and rough with numerous little pits; its hind-body is polished, and, with the legs, of a brownish-red color. It is a large insect compared with the size of its gall, measuring nearly one-fifth of an inch in length, while the diameter of its gall, not including the prickles, rarely exceeds three-tenths of an inch.”

Cynips dichlocerus, “or the gall-fly with two-colored antennæ, is of a brownish-red or cinnamon color, with four little longitudinal grooves on the top of the thorax, the lower part of the antennæ red, and the remainder black. It varies in being darker sometimes, and measures from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in length. Great numbers of these gall-flies are bred in the irregular woody galls, or long excrescences, of the stems of rose-bushes.”

Cynips semipiceus.—“The small roots of rose-bushes, and of other plants of the same family, sometimes produce rounded, warty, and woody knobs, inhabited by numerous gall-insects, which, in coming out, pierce them with small holes on all sides. The winged insects closely resemble the dark varieties of the preceding species in color, and in the little furrows on the thorax; but their legs are rather paler, and they do not measure more than one-tenth of an inch in length.”

Rose-Slug Selandria Rosæ, of Harris, who gives the following account: “The saw-fly of the rose, which, as it does not seem to have been described before, may be called Selandria Rosæ, from its favorite plant, so nearly resembles the slug-worm saw-fly as not to be distinguished therefrom except by a practiced observer. It is also very much like Selandria bardaVitis, and pygmæa, but has not the red thorax of these three closely allied species. It is of a deep and shining black color. The first twopairs of legs are brownish-gray or dirty white, except the thighs, which are almost entirely black. The hind legs are black, with whitish knees. The wings are smoky, and transparent, with dark brown veins, and a brown spot near the middle of the edge of the first pair. The body of the male is a little more than three-twentieths of an inch long, that of the female one-fifth of an inch or more, and the wings expand nearly or quite two-fifths of an inch. These saw-flies come out of the ground at various times between the twentieth of May and the middle of June, during which period they pair and lay their eggs. The females do not fly much, and may be seen, during most of the day, resting on the leaves; and, when touched, they draw up their legs, and fall to the ground. The males are more active, fly from one rose-bush to another, and hover around their sluggish partners. The latter, when about to lay their eggs, turn a little on one side, unsheathe their saws, and thrust them obliquely into the skin of the leaf, depositing in each incision thus made, a single egg. The young begin to hatch in ten days or a fortnight after the eggs are laid. They may sometimes be found on the leaves as early as the first of June, but do not usually appear in considerable numbers until the twentieth of the same month. How long they are in coming to maturity, I have not particularly observed; but the period of their existence in the caterpillar state probably does not exceed three weeks. They somewhat resemble the young of the saw-fly in form, but are not quite so convex. They have a small, round, yellowish head, with a black dot on each side of it, and are provided with twenty-two short legs. The body is green above, paler at the sides, and yellowish beneath; and it is soft, and almost transparent like jelly. The skin of the back is transversely wrinkled, and covered with minute elevated points; and there are two small, triple-pointed warts on the edge of the first ring, immediately behind the head. These gelatinous and sluggish creatures eat the upper surface of the leaf in large irregular patches, leaving the veins and the skin beneath untouched; and they are sometimes so thick that not a leaf on the bushes is spared by them, and the whole foliage looks as if it had been scorched by fire, and drops off soon afterward. They cast their skins several times, leaving them extended and fastened on the leaves; after the last moulting they lose their semi-transparent and greenish color, and acquire an opaque yellowish hue. They then leave the rose-bushes, some of them slowly creeping down the stem, and others rolling up and dropping off, especially when the bushes are shaken by the wind. Having reached the ground, they burrow to the depth of an inch or more in the earth, where each one makes for itself a small oval cell, of grains of earth, cemented with a little gummy silk. Having finished their transformations, and turned to flies, within their cells, they come out of the ground early in August, and lay their eggs for a second brood of young. These, in turn, perform their appointed work of destruction in the autumn; they then go into the ground, make their earthy cells, remain therein throughout the winter, and appear in the winged form, in the following spring and summer.

“During several years past, these pernicious vermin have infested the rose-bushes in the vicinity of Boston, and have proved so injurious to them, as to have excited the attention of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, by whom a premium of one hundred dollars for the most successful mode of destroying these insects was offered in the summer of 1840. About ten years ago, I observed them in gardens in Cambridge, and then made myself acquainted with their transformations. At that time they had not reached Milton, my former place of residence, and have appeared in that place only within two or three years. They now seem to be gradually extending in all directions, and an effectual method for preserving our roses from their attacks has become very desirable to all persons who set any value on this beautiful ornament of our gardens and shrubberies. Showering or syringing the bushes with a liquor, made by mixing with water the juice expressed from tobacco by tobacconists, has been recommended; but some caution is necessary in making this mixture of a proper strength, for if too strong, it is injurious to plants; and the experiment does not seem, as yet, to have been conducted with sufficient care to insure safety and success. Dusting lime over the plants when wet with dew has been tried, and found of some use; but this and all other remedies will probably yield in efficacy to Mr. Haggerston's mixture of whale-oil soap and water, in the proportion of two pounds of the soap to fifteen gallons of water. Particular directions, drawn up by Mr. Haggerston himself, for the preparation and use of this simple and cheap application, may be found in the “Boston Courier” for the 25th of June, 1841, and also in most of our agricultural and horticultural journals of the same time. The utility of this mixture has already been repeatedly mentioned in this treatise, and it may be applied in other eases with advantage. Mr. Haggerston finds that it effectually destroys many kinds of insects; and he particularly mentions plant-lice of various kinds, red spiders, canker-worms, and a little jumping insect which has lately been found quite as hurtful to rose-bushes as the slugs or young of the saw-fly.”

Rose-Bug.Macrodactylus subspinosa.—“Common as this insect is in the vicinity of Boston, it is, or was a few years ago, unknown in the northern and western parts of Massachusetts, in New Hampshire, and in Maine. It may, therefore, be well to give a brief description of it. This beetle measures seven-twentieths of an inch in length. Its body is slender, tapers before and behind, and is entirely covered with very short and close ashen-yellow down; the thorax is long and narrow, angularly widened in the middle of each side, which suggested the name subspinosa, or somewhat spined; the legs are slender, and of a pale red color; the joints of the feet are tipped with black, and are very long, which caused Latreille to call the genus Macrodactylus, that is, long toe, or long foot. The natural history of the rose-chafer, one of the greatest scourges with which our gardens and nurseries have been afflicted, was for a long time involved in mystery, but is at last fully cleared up. The prevalence of this insect on the rose, and its annual appearance, coinciding with the blossoming of that flower, have gained for it the popular name by which it is here known. For some time after they were first noticed, rose-bugs appeared to be confined to their favorite, the blossoms of the rose; but within thirty years, they have prodigiously increased in number, have attacked at random various kinds of plants in swarms, and have become notorious for their extensive and deplorable ravages. The grape-vine in particular, the cherry, plum, and apple-trees, have annually suffered by their depredations; many other fruit-trees and shrubs, garden vegetables and corn, and even the trees of the forest, and the grass of the fields, have been laid under contribution by these indiscriminate feeders, by whom leaves, flowers, and fruits are alike consumed. The unexpected arrival of these insects in swarms, at their first coming, and their sudden disappearance at the close of their career, are remarkable facts in their history. They come forth from the ground during the second week in June, or about the time of the blossoming of the Damask Rose, and remain from thirty to forty days. At the end of this period the males become exhausted, fall to the ground, and perish, while the females enter the earth, lay their eggs, return to the surface, and, after lingering a few days, die also. The eggs laid by each female are about thirty in number, and are deposited from one to four inches beneath the surface of the soil; they are nearly globular, whitish, and about one-thirtieth of an inch in diameter, and are hatched twenty days after they are laid. The young larvæ begin to feed on such tender roots as are within their reach. Like other grubs of the Scarabæus, when not eating, they lie upon the side, with the body curved, so that the head and tail are nearly in contact; they move with difficulty on a level surface, and are continually falling over on one side or the other.

“They attain their full size in autumn, being then nearly three-quarters of an inch long, and about an eighth of an inch in diameter. They are of a yellowish white color, with a tinge of blue towards the hinder extremity, which is thick and obtuse, or rounded; a few short hairs are scattered on the surface of the body; there are six short legs, namely, a pair to each of the first three rings behind the head, and the latter is covered with a horny shell of a pale rust color. In October they descend below the reach of frost, and pass the winter in a torpid state. In the spring they approach toward the surface, and each one forms for itself a little cell, of an oval shape, by turning round a great many times, so as to compress the earth, and render the inside of the cavity hard and smooth. Within this cell the grub is transformed to a pupa, during the month of May, by casting off its skin, which is pushed downward in folds from the head to the tail. The pupa has somewhat the form of the perfected beetle, but it is of a yellowish white color, and its short, stump-like wings, its antennæ, and its legs, are folded upon the breast, and its whole body is inclosed in a thin film that wraps each part separately. During the month of June this filmy skin is rent, the included beetle withdraws from its body and its limbs, bursts open its earthen cell, and digs its way to the surface of the ground. Thus the various changes from the egg to the full development of the perfected beetle are completed within the space of one year.

“Such being the metamorphoses and habits of these insects, it is evident that we cannot attack them in the egg, the grub, or the pupa state; the enemy, in these stages, is beyond our reach, and is subject to the control only of the natural but unknown means appointed by the Author of Nature to keep the insect tribes in check. When they have issued from their subterranean retreats, and have congregated upon our vines, trees, and other vegetable productions in the complete enjoyment of their propensities, we must unite our efforts to seize and crush the invaders. They must indeed be crushed, scalded, or burned, to deprive them of life, for they are not affected by any of the applications usually found destructive to other insects. Experience has proved the utility of gathering them by hand, or of shaking them, or brushing them from the plants into tin vessels containing a little water. They should be collected daily during the period of their visitation, and should be committed to the flames, or killed by scalding water. The late John Lowell, Esq., states, that in 1823, he discovered on a solitary apple-tree the rose-bugs ‘in vast numbers, such as could not be described, and would not be believed if they were described, or at least none but an ocular witness could conceive of their numbers. Destruction by hand was out of the question' in this case. He put sheets under the tree, and shook them down and burned them. Dr. Green, of Mansfield, whose investigations have thrown much light on the history of this insect, proposes protecting plants with millinet, and says that in this way only did he succeed in securing his grape-vines from depredation. His remarks also show the utility of gathering them. ‘Eighty-six of these spoilers,' says he, ‘were known to infest a single rose-bud, and were crushed with one grasp of the hand.' Suppose, as was probably the case, that one-half of them were females; by this destruction, eight hundred eggs, at least, were prevented from becoming matured. During the time of their prevalence, rose-bugs are sometimes found in immense numbers on the flowers of the common white-weed, or ox-eye daisy, (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum,) a worthless plant, which has come to us from Europe, and has been suffered to overrun our pastures, and encroach on our mowing lands. In certain cases it may become expedient rapidly to mow down the infested white-weed in dry pastures, and consume it with the sluggish rose-bugs on the spot.

“Our insect-eating birds undoubtedly devour many of these insects, and deserve to be cherished and protected for their services. Rose-bugs are also eaten greedily by domesticated fowls; and when they become exhausted and fall to the ground, or when they are about to lay their eggs, they are destroyed by moles, insects, and other animals, which lie in wait to seize them. Dr. Green informs us that a species of dragon-fly, or devil's needle, devours them. He also says that an insect, which he calls the enemy of the cut-worm, probably the larva of a Carabus, or predaceous ground-beetle, preys on the grubs of the common dor-bug. In France, the golden ground-beetle (Carabus auratus ) devours the female dor or chafer at the moment when she is about to deposit her eggs. I have taken one specimen of this fine ground-beetle in Massachusetts, and we have several other kinds equally predaceous, which probably contribute to check the increase of our native Melolonthians.”—Harris.

A. J. Downing recommends the use of open-mouthed bottles, half filled (and occasionally renewed) with a mixture of sweetened water and vinegar, and placed about the plant. He also recommends pouring boiling water on the ground, under the bushes, at the first appearance of the insects, and before their wings are formed. They nearly all rise to the surface of the ground, and emerge about the same time that the Damask Rose first begins to open. A little observation will enable the cultivator to seize the right time for the scalding operation.

Rose Leaf-Hopper.Tettigonia Rosæ of Harris, who states that it has been mistaken for the Vine-fretter, or Thrips. It is yellowish white, and about three-twentieths of an inch long; the male has two recurved appendages at the tip of its hind body. Dr. Harris says, “Swarms of these insects may be found in various stages of growth on the leaves of the rose-bush through the greater part of summer, and even in winter upon housed plants. Their numerous cast skins may be seen adhering to the lower side of the leaves. They pair and lay their eggs about the middle of June, and they probably live through the winter in the perfect state, concealed under fallen leaves and rubbish on the surface of the ground. Fumigation with tobacco, and the application of a solution of whale-oil soap in water with a syringe, is the best means for destroying these leaf-hoppers.”

We have enumerated but a very small part of the numerous insects which infest the rose, and in the absence of correct information on this important branch of floriculture, it is much to be hoped that farther investigations will be made by men of leisure. As an instance of the great variety of these insects, a French writer remarks that he “found in less than an hour, on the leaves of two species only of the Rose, six kinds of small caterpillars, all differing from each other in the number of their feet, the color of their head and body, and the lines and points with which they were marked. Their habits were all apparently the same. They lived between two or three folds which they had secured in shape by the films of their silk. Thus enveloped and protected, they eat the leaf until it is wholly or at least partly consumed. They then endeavor to establish themselves on another leaf, in which also they enwrap themselves, and consume it in the same manner. The plants attacked by these caterpillars are known by their ruffled leaves, partly eaten, and more or less covered with silk.” The writer does not give their name, nor the result of any experiments for their destruction; he merely mentions it as an instance of the great abundance of insects on almost every plant. Such being the case, there is abundant room for farther observation and research.

Propagation of the Rose

CUTTINGS.

This mode of propagation, although possible with all roses, is more difficult with those that bloom only once in the season. It is most applicable to the smooth-wooded kinds, as the Bengal and its sub-classes, and the Boursault, Microphylla, rubifolia, etc. Many of the Perpetuals and Bourbons are propagated with facility by the same mode. For propagation in the open ground, cuttings should be made in the autumn, or early part of winter. They should be made of wood of the growth of the season, and about six inches long. The lower end should be cut square, close to a bud, and they can then be planted thickly, two-thirds of their length in sand, in a light and dry cellar. Here a callus will be formed on the bottom of each cutting during the winter, and on being planted out in the spring, they will immediately throw out roots. They should be planted as early as possible in the spring, in a light sandy loam, with one-third of their length and at least one bud above the surface of the ground. They should be planted very early in the spring, because, if left until late, the power of the sun is too much for them. The earth should be trodden down very tight about them, in order, as much as possible, to exclude the air. If the weather is dry, they should be carefully watered in the evening. Where it is inconvenient to make the cuttings in the fall or early in the winter, they can be made in the spring; but in consequence of having to form the callus, they will require a much lighter soil than will afterward be desirable for their growth, and they will also be much later in coming on. This mode of open propagation answers very well for some of the smooth-wooded roses of the more robust growing varieties, like the Boursault and Rubifolia; but for the delicate Bengals, the best mode is pot propagation. For this purpose, small pots can be used, filled with equal parts of mould and sand, or peat and sand. About the middle of autumn, cuttings of the same season's growth are taken off with two to four buds, cutting off one or two of the lower leaves, and cutting off the wood smooth and square close to the eye, as in figure 8. These cuttings can be inserted in the pot, leaving one eye above the surface. It should then be slightly watered to settle the soil firmly around the cuttings, and then placed in a cold frame, or on the floor of a vinery, in which no fire is kept during winter. Early in the spring the pot should be placed in a house with a moderate temperature, kept perfectly close, and sprinkled every morning with water a little tepid. Now, as well as during the autumn, they should be shaded from the too bright glare of the sun. In about a fortnight, and after they have formed a third set of leaves and good roots, a little air can be given them; and after being thus hardened for a week, they can be repotted into larger pots. In order to ascertain when they are sufficiently rooted, the ball of earth can be taken out of the pot, by striking its inverted edge lightly against some body, at the same time sustaining the ball of earth by the hand, the cutting being passed between two of the fingers a little separated. If well rooted, the fibres will be seen on the outside of the ball of earth. They can then be placed in a cold frame, or anywhere under glass, to be planted out the latter part of spring, or retained for pot culture. Where hot-bed frames are not convenient, or the amateur wishes only to experiment with one or two cuttings, he can use a tumbler, or any kind of close glass covering.

Fig. 8.—A ROSE CUTTING.

Where roses are forced into bloom the latter part of winter, cuttings can be taken from them immediately after the bloom is past; and they will also succeed if taken from plants in the open ground immediately after their first bloom. Cuttings of the Everblooming Roses will all strike at any time during the summer, but they succeed much better either in the autumn, or after their first bloom. The heat of our midsummer sun is so great upon plants forced in the house, that cuttings often fail at that time. When a cutting is made near the old stem, it is better to take with it a portion of the old wood, which forms the enlarged part of the young branch. Where the cuttings are scarce, two buds will answer very well—one below the surface; and, in some cases, propagation has been successful with only one eye. In this case they are planted up to the base of the leaf in pots of sand, similar to that used in the manufacture of glass, and the eye is partially covered. They are then subject to the same treatment as the others, and carefully shaded; they will thus root easily, but require a long time to make strong plants.

Some years since, Lecoq, a French cultivator, conceived the idea of endeavoring to propagate roses by the leaf. He gathered some very young leaves of the Bengal rose, about one quarter developed, cutting them off at their insertion, or at the surface of the bark. He planted these in peat soil, in one-inch pots, and then plunged the pots into a moderate heat. A double cover of bell glasses was then placed over them, to exclude the air entirely, which course of treatment was pursued until they had taken root. The shortest time in which this could be accomplished was eight weeks, and the roots were formed in the following manner. First, a callus was formed at the base of the leaf, from which small fibres put forth; a small bud then appeared on the upper side (figure 9); a stalk then arose from this bud, which finally expanded into leaves and formed a perfect plant.

Fig. 9.—LEAF CUTTING.

 

An English writer remarks, that “the leaves or leaflets of a rose will often take root more freely than even cuttings, and in a much shorter time, but these uniformly refuse to make buds or grow.”

This experiment is certainly very curious, and evinces how great, in the vegetable kingdom, are the powers of nature for the maintenance of existence, and is one of those singular results which should lead us to make farther experiments with various parts of plants, and teach us that in Horticulture there is yet a wide field for scientific research.

A favorite mode of propagation with some nurserymen is from soft wood of plants forced in the winter. Many fail entirely in this for want of knowledge of the right condition in which the wood should be before cutting, a condition which cannot be described on paper. Some varieties, like Persian Yellow, will not strike at all, or with great difficulty in this way.

The plants from which these cuttings are to be taken should be prepared and treated as in the preceding chapter. In February and March the cuttings are made and inserted in sand, either in pots or benches, in a house of the same temperature as that in which the parent plant has grown. These pots or benches would be better covered with glass, but it is not essential. After the cuttings have rooted, they can be potted into small pots, and placed in a house of moderate temperature. About the middle of May they can be taken out of these pots and planted in the open ground.

 

BY LAYERS.

This mode is more particularly applicable to those roses that bloom only once in the year, and which do not strike freely from cuttings, although it can be equally well applied to all the smooth-wooded kinds. It can be performed at midsummer and for several weeks afterward, and should be employed only in those cases where young shoots have been formed at least a foot long and are well matured. The soil should be well dug around the plant, forming a little raised bed of some three feet in diameter, with the soil well pulverized and mixed with some manure thoroughly decomposed, and, if heavy, a little sand. A hole should then be made in this bed about four inches deep, and the young matured shoot bent down into it, keeping the top of the shoot some three or four inches above the surface of the ground; the angle thus being found, which should always be made at a bud and about five or six inches from the top of the shoot, the operator should cut off all the leaves below the ground. A sharp knife should then be placed just below a bud, about three inches below the surface of the ground, and a slanting cut made upward and lengthwise, about half through the branch, forming a sort of tongue from one to two inches long, on the back part of the shoot right opposite the bud; a chip or some of the soil can be placed in the slit, to prevent it from closing, and the shoot can then be carefully laid in the hole, and pegged down at a point some two inches below the cut, keeping, at the same time, the top of the shoot some three or four inches out of the ground, and making it fast to a small stake, to keep it upright. Care should be taken not to make the angle where the branch is pegged at the cut, as the branch would be injured and perhaps broken off; the best place is about two inches below the incision. The soil can then be replaced in the hole, and where it is convenient covered with some moss or litter of any kind. This will protect the soil from the sun and keep it moist, and will materially aid the formation of new roots. These are formed in the same manner as in cuttings; first a callus is produced on those parts of the incision where the bark joins the wood, and from this callus spring the roots, which, in some cases, will have grown sufficiently for the layers to be taken from the parent plant the latter part of the following autumn; in some cases, however, the roots will not have sufficiently formed to allow them to be taken up before another year. The summer is the best period for layering the young shoots. Early in the spring, layers can be made with the wood formed the previous year. Where it is more convenient, a shoot can be rooted by making the incision as above, and introducing it into a quart pot with the bottom partly broken out. This pot can be plunged in the ground, or if the branch is from a standard, it can be raised on a rough platform. In either case, it should be covered with moss, to protect it from the sun, and should be watered every evening. We recollect seeing in the glass manufactories of Paris, a very neat little glass tumbler, used by the French gardeners for this purpose. It held, perhaps, half a pint, and a space about half an inch wide was cut out through the whole length of the side, through which space the branch of any plant was inserted, and the tumbler then filled with soil. When the roots were formed and began to penetrate the soil, they could be easily perceived through the glass. Although an incision is always the most certain, and it is uniformly practiced, roots will in many varieties strike easily from the buds; and a common operation in France is simply to peg down the branches in the soil, without any incision; in some cases, they give the branch a sudden twist, which will break or bruise the bark, and facilitate the formation of roots.

Some Chinese authors state that very long branches may be laid down, and that roots may be thus obtained from all the eyes upon them, which will eventually form as many plants.

Vibert, a well-known rose cultivator in France, remarks upon this point: “Upon laying down with the requisite care some branches fifteen to twenty-four inches long, of the new growth, or of that of the previous year, and upon taking them up with similar care, after twelve or eighteen months, I found only the first eyes expanded into buds or roots, while the rest had perished. I have seldom seen the fifth eye developed, while I have frequently known the whole branch entirely perish. I speak in general terms, for there are some rare exceptions, and the different varieties of the Four-seasons Rose may be cited as proof that a great number of eyes of the same branch have taken root.”

This is the opinion of an eminent rose grower; but if, as he states, the Monthly Damask Rose will root freely in this way, many of the smooth-wooded roses would undoubtedly root still more readily, and our rapid growing native rose, Queen of the Prairies, would very probably throw out roots readily, when treated in this manner. It is worth repeated experiment; for, if rapid growing roses, like some of the evergreen varieties, the Greville, and the Queen of the Prairies, could with facility be made to grow in this way, rose hedges could be easily formed by laying down whole branches, and a very beautiful and effective protection would be thus produced, to ornament our fields and gardens.

 

SUCKERS.

Many roses throw up suckers readily from the root, and often form one of the principal causes of annoyance to the cultivator. For this reason, budding and grafting should always be done on stocks that do not incline to sucker. The Dog Rose—on which almost all the imported varieties are now worked—is particularly liable to this objection, and it is no unusual thing to see half-a-dozen suckers growing about a single rose-tree. When the health and prosperity of the plant are desired, these should be carefully kept down, as they deprive the plant of a material portion of its nourishment. When, however, they are wanted for stocks, they should be taken off every spring with a small portion of root, which can generally be obtained by cutting some distance below the surface of the ground. They should be planted immediately where they are wanted for budding, and will soon be fit for use. Many fine varieties of the summer roses will sucker in this way, and an old plant when taken up will sometimes furnish a large number of thrifty stems, each with a portion of root attached.

 

BUDDING.

Fifty years ago, budding and grafting were very little practiced, excepting with new varieties, that could with great difficulty be propagated in any other way. Within that time, however, the practice has been constantly increasing until now, when it is extensively employed in Europe, and roses imported from France and England can very rarely be obtained on their own roots. To this mode of propagation, there is one great objection, while the advantages in some varieties are sufficiently great to counterbalance any inconveniences attending the cultivation of a budded or grafted rose. It is generally the case, that the stock or plant on which the Rose is budded is of some variety that will throw up suckers very freely, which growing with great luxuriance, will sometimes overpower the variety budded upon it, and present a mass of its own flowers. The purchaser will thus find a comparatively worthless bloom, instead of the rare and beautiful varieties whose appearance he has been eagerly awaiting, and upon the head of the nurseryman will frequently descend the weight of his indignation. This difficulty can, however, be avoided by a very little attention. The shoot of the stock can very readily be distinguished from that of the budded or grafted variety by its growth and foliage, even if the age of the plant will not allow the point of inoculation to be recognized. In passing the plant in his walks, let the owner simply cut away any shoot of this character that may spring from the stock or root. The budded variety thus receiving all the nourishment from the root, will soon grow with luxuriance, and present to the eager expectant as fine a bloom as he may desire—at the expense only of a little observation, and the trouble of occasionally taking his knife from his pocket.

This trouble, however, is such that the plant is in most cases neglected. Budded or grafted roses are thus very unpopular in this country, and those on their own roots are deemed the only ones which it is safe to plant.

The practice of budding has brought into cultivation a form of the plant which is highly ornamental, but which can never become very general in this country. The Tree Rose is an inoculation upon a standard some four or five feet in height, generally a Dog Rose or Eglantine. The tall, naked stem, a greater part of which is unsheltered by any foliage, is exposed to the full glare of our summer sun, and unless protected in some way, will often die out in two or three years. Its life can be prolonged by covering the stem with moss, or with a sort of tin tube, provided with small holes, to allow the air to enter and circulate around the stem. This is, however, some trouble; and as many will not provide this protection, a large part of the standard roses imported to this country will gradually die out, and rose bushes  be generally employed for single planting, or for grouping upon the lawn.

In budding, there are two requisites: a well-established and thriftily growing plant, and a well-matured eye or bud. The operation can be performed at any season when these requisites can be obtained. In the open ground, the wood from which the buds are cut is generally not mature until after the first summer bloom.

Fig. 10.—BUDDING THE ROSE.

 

Fig. 11.—BUDDING IN THE BRANCHES.

 

Fig. 12.—BUDDING A POTTED ROSE.

 

Having ascertained by running a knife under the bark, that the stock will peel easily, and having some perfectly ripe young shoots with buds upon them, the operation can be performed with a sharp knife that is round and very thin at the point. Make in the bark of the stock a longitudinal incision of three-quarters of an inch, and another short one across the top, as in a, fig. 10; run the knife under the bark and loosen it from the wood; then cut from one of the young shoots of the desired variety, a bud, as in b ; placing the knife a quarter to three-eighths of an inch above the eye or bud, and cutting out about the same distance below it, cutting sufficiently near the bud to take with it a very thin scale of the wood. English gardeners will always peel off this thin scale; but in our hot climate, it should always be left on, as it assists to keep the bud moist, and does not at all prevent the access of the sap from the stock to the bud. The bud being thus prepared, take it, by the portion of leaf-stalk attached, between the thumb and finger in the left hand, and, with the knife in the right, open the incision in the bark sufficiently to allow the bud to be slipped in as far as it will go, when the bark will close over and retain it. Then take a mat-string, or a piece of yarn, and firmly bind it around the bud, leaving only the petiole and bud exposed, as in c, fig. 10. The string should be allowed to remain for about two weeks, or until the bud is united to the stock. If allowed to remain longer, it will sometimes cut into the bark of the rapidly growing stock, but is productive of no other injury. It is the practice with many cultivators to cut off the top of the stock above the bud immediately after inoculation. A limited acquaintance with vegetable physiology would convince the cultivator of the injurious results of this practice, and that the total excision of the branches of the stock while in full vegetation must be destructive to a large portion of the roots, and highly detrimental to the prosperity of the plant. A much better mode is to bend down the top, and tie its extremity to the lower part of the stock. Several days after this is done, the bud can be inserted just below the sharpest bend of the arch. When the buds are to be placed in the branches of a stock, as infig. 11, the top of the main stem can be cut off, and the branches arched over and tied to the main stem, as at f ; the bud is then inserted in each branch, as at c. The circulation of the sap being thus impeded by the bending of the branches, it is thrown into the inoculation, and forms then a more immediate union than it would if the branches were not arched. After the buds have become fairly united to the stock and have commenced growing, the top can be safely cut off to the bud, although it would be still better to make the pruning of the top proportionate to the growth of the bud; by this means, a slower, but more healthy vegetation is obtained. When the buds are inserted very late in the season, it is better not to cut off the top of the stock or branches until the following spring, and to preserve the bud dormant. Ifallowed to make a rapid growth so late in the season, there would be great danger of its being killed by frost. European cultivators are very fond of budding several varieties on one stock, in order to obtain the pretty effect produced by a contrast of color. This will only answer where great care is taken to select varieties of the same vegetating force; otherwise one will soon outstrip the others, and appropriate all the nourishment. It is also desirable that they should belong to the same species. When a bud is inserted in a plant in pot, as in fig. 12, the main branches are left, and a portion of the top only cut off, in order to give the bud some additional nourishment.

 

GRAFTING.

From the pithy nature of the wood of the Rose, grafting is always less certain than budding; but it is frequently adopted by cultivators, as budding cannot be relied upon in the spring, and as there is much wood from the winter pruning which would be otherwise wasted. It is also useful for working over those plants in which buds have missed the previous summer.

There are several modes of grafting, of which the most generally practiced is cleft-grafting. For this mode, the stock is cut off at the desired height with a sharp knife, either horizontally, or slightly sloping. The cut should be made just above a bud, which may serve to draw up the sap to the graft. The stock can then be split with a heavy knife, making the slit or cleft about an inch long. The cion should be about four inches long, with two or more buds upon it. An inch of the lower part of the cion can be cut in the shape of a wedge, making one side very thin, and on the thick or outer side, leaving a bud opposite to the top of the wedge. This cion can then be inserted in the cleft as far as the wedge is cut, being very careful to make the bark of the cion fit exactly to that of the stock. In order to exclude the air, the top and side of the stock should then be bound with a strip of cloth covered with a composition of beeswax and resin in equal parts, with sufficient tallow to make it soft at a reasonably low temperature. In the course of two or three weeks, if every thing is favorable, the cion will begin to unite, and will be ready to go forward with advancing vegetation. When the stock is sufficiently large, two cions can be inserted, as in fig. 13.

Fig. 13.—CLEFT GRAFTING.Fig. 14.—WHIP GRAFTING.

 

Whip-grafting  is performed by cutting a slice of bark with a little wood from the side of a stock about an inch and a half long, and then paring a cion of the usual length down to a very thin lower extremity, as in fig. 14. This cion can then be accurately fitted on to the place from which the slice of bark and wood is taken. The whole can then be bound around with cotton cloth, covered with the composition described before. In all grafting it should be borne in mind, that it is essential for the bark of the cion and that of the stock to touch each other in some point, and the more the points of contact, the greater will be the chance of success.

Rind-grafting  is also sometimes practiced, but is more uncertain than the former, as the swelling of the stock is very apt to force the cion out. This mode must be practiced when the bark peels easily, or separates with ease from the wood. The top of the stock must be cut off square, and the bark cut through from the top about an inch downward. The point of the knife can then be inserted at the top, and the bark peeled back, as in a, fig. 15. It is desirable, as before, that a bud should be left on the other side of the stock, opposite this opening; and the French prefer, also, to have a bud left on the outside of the part of the cion which is inserted. The cion should be cut out and sloped flat on one side, as in b,fig. 15; then inserted in the stock between the bark and wood, as in c, and bound with mat-strings, or strips of grafting cloth.

Fig. 15.—RIND GRAFTING.

 

The French have another mode of grafting stocks about the size of a quill or the little finger. It is done by placing the knife about two inches below a bud which is just on the point of starting, and cutting half way through the stock, and two inches down, as in fig. 16. The cion is then placed in the lower part of this cavity, in the same manner as with cleft grafting. This mode is called Aspirant, from the bud above the incision, which continues to draw up the sap, until the development of the cion. When the cion has grown about two inches, the top of the stock is cut off and covered with grafting wax. This mode is not always successful, as the sap sometimes leaves the side of the stock which has been partly cut away and passes up the other side.

Fig. 16.

 

The French have also a mode of grafting, which they call par incrustation, and which is performed in the spring, as soon as the leaf-buds appear. A cion with a bud adhering to the wood is cut in a sort of oval shape, and inserted in a cavity made of the same shape, and just below an eye which has commenced growing. It is then bound around with matting, as in budding. This is a sort of spring budding, with rather more wood attached to the bud, than in summer budding. It is very successfully practiced by various cultivators in the vicinity of Paris. There is still another mode sometimes practiced in France, which owes its origin to a cultivator named Lecoq. A small branch is chosen, which is provided with two buds, one of them being on the upper part, and the other near its larger end. A sidelong sloping cut is made all along its lower half, the upper being left entire. When the cion is thus prepared, its cut side is fitted to the side of the stock under the bark, which has been cut and peeled back. It is then bound around with mat-strings or grafting cloth in the usual way. This mode has a peculiar merit; should the upper bud not grow, the lower one rarely fails, and develops itself as in common budding.

Cleft and whip-grafting is also practiced occasionally upon the roots of the Rose, and succeeds very well with some varieties. These modes of grafting can all be more successfully practiced on stocks in pots in green-houses with bottom heat and bell glasses. We have given thus concisely, and, we hope, clearly, the various modes of budding and grafting with which we are acquainted. They may be sufficient to enable the amateur to amuse his leisure hours, though his success may not entirely meet his expectations. Simple as these operations are, they require a kind of skill, and, if we may so call it, sleight-of-hand, which is only attained by constant practice upon a great number of plants.

General Culture of the Rose

As before stated, the Rose was the theme of the earliest poets of antiquity; and it was doubtless one of the first plants selected to adorn the gardens which were laid out around the new habitations constructed upon the exchange of the wandering for a civilized mode of life.

The most ancient authors upon husbandry, whose works are extant, have all treated of the culture of Roses: Theophrastus among the Greeks; and among the Romans, Varro, Columella, Palladius, and Pliny. To Pliny are we specially indebted for information on this subject, as the entire fourth chapter of the twentieth book of his Natural History is devoted to Roses; and they are also occasionally mentioned in other parts of the work. But after all the information thus obtained, much yet remains to be desired; and although we find in other ancient authors some curious facts bearing upon other points in the history of the Rose, they are mostly so general in their character as to give us very little insight into the actual culture of the Rose at those periods.

The profuseness with which they were used among the Greeks, the Romans, the Egyptians, and other ancient nations in their religious solemnities, their public ceremonies, and even in the ordinary customs of private life, would lead us to suppose, and with some degree of correctness, that roses were very abundantly cultivated by them all; and we are inclined to think that their cultivation was then far more general than at the present time, although the art of producing them was in its infancy. However surprising in other respects may have been the progress of the culture of roses within forty years, particularly in France, Holland, and Belgium, there can be little doubt that, although the Romans were acquainted with a much smaller number of varieties than the moderns, yet flowers of those varieties were far more abundant than the aggregate quantity of flowers of all the varieties of roses cultivated at the present day. It cannot be positively asserted that the Remontant Roses of the present time were unknown at Rome, since the gardeners of that city practiced sowing the seeds of the Rose, by which mode many of the most remarkable varieties of that class have been obtained by modern cultivators. The Romans, however, preferred to propagate by cuttings, which produced flowering plants much sooner than those from the seed.

But, though the Romans may have had roses of the same species with some of those which we now cultivate, it is scarcely probable that these species could have continued until this period, and escaped the devastation attendant on the revolutions of empire, or the more desolating invasions of the Huns and Goths. Thus it is, that those roses of Pæstum, to which allusion is so frequently made by ancient writers, and which, according to Virgil and Pliny, bloomed semi-annually, and were common in the gardens of that city, are not now to be found. Jussieu and Loudresse, two French gentlemen, successively visited Italy with the express object of finding this twice-bearing Rose in Pæstum or its environs, yet, notwithstanding their carefully prosecuted researches, they could find no traces of it whatever.

Although the number of varieties known to the Romans was very limited, they had discovered a method of making the blooming season continue many months. According to Pliny, the roses of Carthage, in Spain, came forward early and bloomed in winter; those of Campania bloomed next in order; then those of Malta; and lastly those of Pæstum, which flowered in the spring and autumn. It was probably the blooming of this last species which the gardeners of Rome discovered (in Seneca's time) the secret of retarding by a certain process, or of hastening by means of their warm green-houses.

In the last part of this work, we have cited many passages from ancient authors, which show to what an enormous extent the use of roses was carried by the Romans on certain occasions. It is difficult to credit, at this day, the relation of Nero's extravagance (which is, however, attested by Suetonius), when it is told that in one fête alone he expended in roses only, more than four millions of sesterces, or one hundred thousand dollars. It would be no easy matter, even at the present period of abundant cultivation of Roses, to obtain from all the nurseries of England, France, and America together, roses sufficient to amount to so large a sum.

The Romans derived the use of this flower from the Greeks. In Greece, and throughout the East, roses were cultivated, not only for the various purposes we have mentioned, but also for the extraction of their perfumes. Among the many plans which they adopted for preserving the flower was that of cutting off the top of a reed, splitting it down a short distance, and enclosing in it a number of rose-buds, which, being bound around with papyrus, prevented their fragrance from escaping. The Greeks also deemed it a great addition to the fragrance of the Rose to plant garlic near its roots. The island of Rhodes, which has successively borne many names, was particularly indebted to the culture of roses for that which it bears at this day. It was the Isle of Roses, the Greek for Rose being Ροδον,—Rodon.

Medals of Rhodes, whose reverse impressions present a rose in bloom on one side, and the sunflower on the other, are to be found even now in cabinets of curiosities.

Extravagance in roses, among the Romans, kept pace with the increase of their power, until they at length desired them at all seasons. At first they procured their winter's supply from Egypt, but subsequently attained themselves such skill in their culture as to produce them in abundance, even at the coldest season of the year; and, according to Seneca, by means of green-houses, heated by pipes filled with hot water. During the reign of Domitian, the forcing of roses was carried to such perfection, and flowers produced in winter in so great abundance, that those brought from Egypt, as before mentioned, excited only the contempt of the citizens of the world's metropolis.

This fact, as also handed down to us by the epigram of Martial, is of great assistance in estimating the importance of rose-culture at that period, and in showing how the art of cultivating this plant had spread, and how it was already far advanced among the ancient Romans and their contemporaries.

If the Egyptians cultivated roses for transportation to Rome during the winter, they must have had very extensive plantations for the purpose. The exportation could not have been of loose flowers, for they would have been withered long before the termination of the voyage; neither could it have been of rooted plants in a dormant state, as nurserymen now send them to every part of the world, because the Romans had at that time no means of causing them to vegetate and bloom in the winter. On the contrary, the cultivators at Alexandria and Memphis must, of necessity, have sent them away in the vases and boxes in which they had planted them with that object, and when they were just beginning to break from the bud, in order that they might arrive at Rome at the moment they commenced expanding.

At that remote period, when navigation was far behind its present state of perfection, the voyage from the mouth of the Nile to the coast of Italy occupied more than twenty days. When this long voyage is considered, and also the quantity of roses required by the Romans to enwreath their crowns and garlands, to cover their tables and couches, and the pavements of their festive halls, and to surround the urns which contained the ashes of their dead, it is evident that the Egyptians, who traded in roses, in order to satisfy the prodigality of the Romans, would be compelled to keep in readiness a certain number of vessels to be laden with boxes or vases of rose-plants, so prepared as not to bloom before their delivery at Rome. The cost of roses thus delivered in Rome must have been immense, but we do not find a single passage in any of the ancient authors which can give any light on this point; they only tell us that nothing for the gratification of luxury was considered too costly by the wealthy Roman citizens. Nor do they afford more positive information as to the species of Rose cultivated on the borders of the Nile, to gratify this taste of the Romans. According to Delile, there were found in Egypt, at the time of the French expedition into that country, only the White Rose and the Centifolia, or hundred-leaved—two species not very susceptible of either a forcing or retarding culture. The only Rose known at that time, which bloomed in the winter, was the Rose of Pæstum, referred to by Virgil, as “biferique rosaria Pæsti,” and which was probably the same as our monthly Damask Rose, and which produced in Egypt and Rome flowers at all seasons, as the Damask does now with us, under a proper mode of culture.

The extent to which the culture and commerce of roses was carried among the Romans is shown by the fact that, although they had confounded the tree and its flowers under one name—that of Rosa,—they nevertheless gave particular appellations to the gardens or ground planted with rose-bushes. They were termed a Rosarium, or a Rosetum. Ovid says, “Quot amœna Rosaria flores.” The dealer in roses was also designated by the distinctive appellation of Rosarius.


In the latter part of the decline of the Roman Empire, when paganism still existed to a great degree, there arose a people who formed, as it were, the connecting link between the ancient and modern world—a people who acknowledged but one Supreme Ruler, and his sole vicegerent, Mahomet; a people whose origin was among the wildest tribes of Ishmael's descendants, who possessed in a great degree the luxuries of civilized life, and among whom the arts, sciences, and agriculture, were very flourishing for many ages. Among the Moors of Spain, the culture of the Rose was pursued with as much scientific and practical method as at the present day, but with somewhat less happy results. When in Paris, some years since, we became acquainted with M. Hardy, the chief director of the Luxembourg gardens, and who is well known to rose growers, by the many beautiful varieties which he has originated. His interest in this subject was very great, and in 1828, he published in the Journal des Jardins  some interesting observations which he had extracted from a manuscript of M. de la Neuville. The latter having been employed as military superintendent in Spain during the war of 1823, translated from a Spanish version some parts of an Arabian work upon culture in general, in which that of the Rose was mentioned, with some important particulars. It stated that the Moors, who formerly conquered Spain, attached the highest value to this most beautiful of their flowers, and cultivated it with as much care as we do ourselves. “According to Abu-el-Jaïr,” says the translation, “there are roses of many colors—carnation white, fallow or yellow, lapis-lazuli, or sky-blue. Some are of this last color on the outside, and yellow within. In the East they are acquainted with roses which are variegated with yellow and sky-blue, the inside of the corolla being of the one color, and the outside the other. The yellow-heart is very common in Tripoli and Syria, and the blue-heart is found on the coast of Alexandria.” To us, at the present day, this relation may with reason seem incredible, since amid the numerous varieties now existing, and the skill of their cultivators, we have in no instance been able to obtain a blue Rose. Abu-el-Jaïr may have ventured to state it as a fact without proper authority, for, according to M. de la Neuville, Abu-Abdallah-ebu-el-Fazel, another nearly contemporaneous author, enumerated a variety of roses without mentioning the blue. “There are,” says this last author, “four varieties of roses: the first is named the Double White; it has an exquisite odor, and its cup unites more than a hundred petals: the second is the Yellow, which is of a golden color, and bright as the jonquil; then the Purple; and lastly the flesh-colored, which is the most common of them all.” Farther on the same author adds: “The number of species is supposed to be large: the Mountain or Wild; the Double, which is variegated with red and white shades; and the Chinese. The Double, however, is the most beautiful, and is composed of forty to fifty petals.”

The Moors multiplied roses by all the various methods which are employed at this day: by suckers from the root, by cuttings, by budding, and by grafting. The pruning-knife was also freely used, in order to form regular heads.

There is a farther translation of De la Neuville from a Spanish version of the “Book of Agriculture,” written by Ebu-Alwan, who lived in the twelfth century, and who, in addition to his own experience, quoted largely from some Chaldaic and Arabic writers. He states that the Moors practiced two methods of sowing the seeds of the Rose. The first was in earthen pans—a mode adapted to delicate plants; they were watered immediately after being sown, and afterward twice a week until autumn, when such care became unnecessary. The other method was sowing broadcast as grain is sown, then covering the seed-beds an inch deep with carefully sifted manure or fine mould, and giving them the requisite watering. The plants from these seed-beds did not produce flowers until the third year after their being thus prepared, and until they had been transplanted into squares or borders; such is still the case with nearly all our summer roses, the only kind the Moors appear to have possessed. They also understood the art of forcing roses. “If you wish,” says Haj, another author, “the Rose tree to bloom in autumn, you must choose one that has been accustomed to periodical waterings; you must deprive it of water entirely during the heat of summer until August, and then give it an abundance of moisture; this will hasten its growth, and cause the expansion of its flowers in great profusion, without impairing its ability to bloom the ensuing spring, as usual.” “Or else,” adds the same author, “in the month of October, burn the old branches to the level of the earth, moisten the soil for eight consecutive days, and then suspend the watering; alternate these periods of moisture and drought as many as five times, and probably in about sixty days, or before the end of autumn, the roots will have thrown out vigorous branches, which will in due time be loaded with flowers, without destroying the ability of the plant to bloom again the following spring.” The climate in which the Moors lived—that of Cordova, Grenada, and Seville, where the winter is very much like our weather in mid-autumn—was very favorable to the cultivation of the Rose. In this country the same results could doubtless be obtained in the Carolinas, and the experiment would be well worth trying, even in the latitude of New York. It would be no small triumph to obtain an autumnal bloom of the many beautiful varieties of French, Moss, or Provence Roses. Haj has also given the method of keeping the Rose in bud, in order to prolong its period of blooming. His process, however, is of so uncertain a character, as scarcely to merit an insertion here. The manuscript of De la Neuville also contains particular directions for propagating roses, and for planting hedges of the Eglantine, to protect the vineyards and gardens, and at the same time to serve as stocks for grafting. Nothing is omitted in the Arabian treatise which pertains to the management of this shrub; the manner of cultivating, weeding, transplanting, watering, etc., are all particularly explained. Among a variety of curious matters, it contains the process by which, for the purpose of embellishing their gardens, they produced the appearance of trees whose tops are loaded with roses. A hollow pipe, four feet long, or more, if the top was to be large, was obtained, of a well-proportioned diameter, set upright, to resemble the trunk of a tree, and filled with earth or sand in a suitable state of moisture. In the top of this pipe were planted several varieties of roses, of different colors, which, rooting freely in the earth around them, soon formed a bushy head, and represented a third-class tree, clothed with rich foliage and beautiful flowers.

This plan could now be practiced with success; and we can scarcely imagine more beautiful objects in a lawn than a number of these pipes, of various heights, single, and in groups, some low, with the small heads of the China or Tea Roses, others high, and with the large, robust branches of the La Reine, and other Perpetuals, and others, again, planted with some delicate climbing roses, whose branches, falling down, would form a weeping tree of a most unique, graceful, and showy character. The pipes could be made of earthenware, tin, or wood, and be painted in imitation of the bark of a tree. Still better would be the trunk of a small tree, hollowed out for the purpose, which, with the bark on, would puzzle many a close observer, and which could show a luxuriant head of leaves and flowers on the most sterile soil that ever formed a lawn.

From what has been said on the culture of roses among the Moors in Spain, there can be no doubt that they had made great progress therein; and with the exception of a few statements, evidently unfounded in fact, as the grafting of the Rose on the almond, the apple, the jujube, and other trees, the little treatise translated by De la Neuville certainly contains most excellent remarks upon the culture of roses, whether we compare them with what the ancients have left us, or even with those of the various writers on Rose culture in Europe and America within the last half century.

As roses were so frequently propagated from the seed by the Moors, they must have known quite a number of varieties, exclusive of all those they had brought or obtained from the East. The Yellow Rose, unknown to us until recently, was apparently familiar to them; and the Blue Rose, of which their manuscripts speak, is now extinct, if it indeed ever existed; for amid the infinite variety of roses, of every color and shade, produced from seed in modern times, no one has yet obtained a purely Blue Rose, and its former existence may well seem to us incredible.

Besides the Moorish cultivation in Spain, the Rose has been an object of culture to a great extent in other countries. It has been cultivated principally for the beauty of its flowers, but in many parts of Europe and Asia, and in the north of Africa, its culture has been pursued for commercial purposes. Of its abundance in Palestine, some conception may be formed from the statement of travelers, that they have not only seen them wild and in great profusion in the vicinity of Jerusalem, but have found them in hedges, intermingled with pomegranate trees. Doubday states that, when the Eastern Christians made one of their processions in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, which continued some two hours, many persons were present with sacks full of rose petals, which they threw by handfuls on the people, and in such immense quantities, that many were covered with them, and they were scattered all over the pavement. In Syria and Persia it has been cultivated from a very early period, and the ancient name of the former, Suristan, is said to signify the land of roses. Damascus, Cashmere, Barbary, and Fayoum in Egypt, all cultivated the Rose extensively for its distilled oil or essence. Very little is extant respecting the culture of the Rose in the middle ages, but that it was cultivated and valued is known by its having been worn by knights at the tournament, as an emblem of their devotion to grace and beauty. According to Loudon, “Ludovico Verthema, who traveled in the East in 1503, observed that Tæssa was particularly celebrated for roses, and that he saw a great quantity of these flowers at Calicut.” The Rose is to this day also extensively cultivated in India, and for commercial purposes perhaps in greater abundance than is now known in any other country. Bishop Heber states that “Ghazepoor is celebrated throughout India for the wholesomeness of its air and the beauty and extent of its rose gardens. The rose-fields, which occupy many hundred acres in the neighborhood, are described as, at the proper season, extremely beautiful. They are cultivated for distillation and for making ‘Attar of Roses.'” He states also, that “many roses were growing in the garden of the palace of Delhi, and the fountain pipes were carved with images of roses.” Another writer describes in glowing colors the beauty of Ghazepoor, the Gul-istan (the rose beds,) of Bengal. “In the spring of the year, an extent of miles around the town presents to the eye a continual garden of roses, than which nothing can be more beautiful and fragrant. The sight is perfectly dazzling; the plain, as far as the eye can reach, extending in the same bespangled carpet of red and green. The breezes, too, are loaded with the sweet odor which is wafted far across the river Ganges.”

These statements sufficiently evince that the Rose was not only valued by the Hindoos as an article of commerce, but was intimately associated with their ideas of pleasure and enjoyment.

Persia, however, was, above all other countries, preëminent for roses. “Sir John Chardin, in 1686, found the gardens of the Persians without parterres, labyrinths, and other ornaments of European gardens, but filled with lilies, peach trees, and roses; and all modern travelers bear testimony to the esteem in which this flower is held in the East.” Sir Wm. Ousley tells us, in his travels in Persia, in 1819, that when he entered the flower garden belonging to the Governor of the Castle, near Farso, he was overwhelmed with roses; and Jackson, in his Journey, etc., says that the roses of the Sinan Nile, or Garden of the Nile, are unequalled; and mattresses are made of their leaves, for men of rank to recline upon. Buckingham speaks of the rose plantations of Damascus as occupying an area of many acres, about three miles from that city. Sir Robert Ker Porter, speaking of the garden of one of the royal palaces of Persia, says: “I was struck with the appearance of two rose trees, full fourteen feet high, laden with thousands of flowers, in every degree of expansion, and of a bloom and delicacy of scent that imbued the whole atmosphere with exquisite perfume. Indeed, I believe that in no country in the world does the rose grow in such perfection as in Persia; in no country is it so cultivated and prized by the natives. Their gardens and courts are crowded by its plants, their rooms ornamented with roses, filled with its gathered branches, and every bath strewed with the full-blown flowers, plucked with the ever-replenished stems. * * * But in this delicious garden of Negaaristan, the eye and the smell are not the only senses regaled by the presence of the Rose: the ear is enchanted by the wild and beautiful notes of multitudes of nightingales, whose warblings seem to increase in melody and softness, with the unfolding of their favorite flowers. Here, indeed, the stranger is more powerfully reminded, that he is in the genuine country of the nightingale and the Rose.” Rivers mentions that Sir John Malcolm told him, that when in Persia he had once breakfasted on an immense heap, or rather mount, of roses, which the Persians had raised in honor of him. The rose of Cashmere has been long celebrated in the East, for its brilliancy and delicacy of odor—

“Who has not heard of the Vale of Cashmere,With its Roses, the brightest that earth ever gave?”

Throughout the whole season during which the roses remained in bloom in this beautiful valley, the Feast of Roses was kept with great rejoicing, and an entire abandonment to pleasure. At this time, a great number of tents were pitched, and multitudes of men, women, boys, and girls, were dancing and singing to the music of their various instruments.

All that has been handed down to us, and all we know at the present time of the climate and productions of Persia, and the customs of its inhabitants, prove that it was emphatically the land of roses; and all that we can gather from its history or tradition evinces, that to the inhabitants of the East, including the Hindoos and the Moors of Spain, is this beautiful flower indebted for the most careful and abundant cultivation, and for a due appreciation of its merits.

At the present time the Rose is cultivated throughout the civilized world. Loudon speaks of hedges of mixed Provence Roses, in the garden of Rosenstein, in Germany, and also of their profusion in the public garden of Frankfort. They are found in the gardens of Valencia, in Spain, and Sir John Carr, speaking of the seat of a Spanish gentleman near Tarragona, says, “The doors of the dining room open into a small garden, the walls of which are covered with myrtles, jasmines, and roses.” In the Botanic garden of Madrid, rose trees are used for dividing hedges, and the flower is a favorite throughout Spain.

Among the Spanish ladies, the Rose is highly valued, and, with the Orange flower, is a favorite ornament for the hair. We have frequently been struck, while traveling in the Spanish West Indies, and in some parts of South America, with the careful nurture and attention bestowed on a single rose bush, and the delight exhibited at its bloom, while all around in natural luxuriance were the most beautiful and gorgeous plants and flowers which the tropics can produce. The brilliant cactus, the beautiful oleander, the singular orchids, and the delicate and fragrant flowers of the coffee and orange, seemed cast into the shade by the ancient and well-known Rose.

I well recollect, that on returning one day from a ride into the country, where I had been luxuriating in the gorgeous splendor of a tropical forest, the fair daughter of my hostess wished to introduce me to a flower, which, in her opinion, far surpassed all that I had seen; she accompanied me to the top of the flat-roofed house, used at the South as a place of evening resort, and there, in one corner, I found a thrifty plant of the Tea Rose, which to her infinite delight, was just showing above its glossy and delicate young leaves, a little ruby-tipped bud. This little plant had been the object of long and careful nursing, and her attention was now about to be rewarded by a fine and perfect bloom.

In France, however, is the Rose a preëminent object of horticulture, both in commercial establishments and in private gardens. The skill of the French has originated many new and beautiful varieties, which are to be found in several of the nurseries in the United States. The French are constantly searching for improvements in horticultural science and practice, with an enthusiasm rarely found in the more cold Englishman, whose skill seems to consist less in the creation of new varieties, than in growing perfectly those already known. None, indeed, can surpass the English in the art of growing fine plants, but we are chiefly indebted to the French for the finest new varieties of the Rose.

In Great Britain, although comparatively little attention has been paid to the obtaining of new varieties, the culture is more careful and the nomenclature more correct. The competition excited by their numerous horticultural exhibitions causes great attention to be given to correct nomenclature and to symmetrical habit of growth. We can imagine nothing more beautiful than some of the plants that we saw at the exhibitions of the London Horticultural Society at Chiswick; every plant was pruned, trained and grown, after an ideal, but perfect model, with its close and luxuriant foliage, its thrifty, symmetrical habit, and the thick, leathery petals of its well-cupped flower. This high standard should be introduced into every Society, and if such were the case in this country and the rule were carefully obeyed, the character of our exhibitions would in a short time be very materially changed.

T. Rivers is one of the most extensive rose cultivators in England, and is also known as the author of a very excellent descriptive work on the Rose. He has also been successful in hybridizing, and has originated come very fine varieties. His attention was at one time directed almost exclusively to the Rose, but it now includes many other nursery articles, and on our visit to him, we found him much interested with experiments in fruit culture. Lane, Wood, and Paul, are esteemed very good cultivators, and generally correct in their nomenclature. From these several establishments in England and France have been imported most of the varieties now existing in this country. Their trade with the United States is, however, comparatively limited, from the great risk of loss by a sea voyage. We have frequently lost in this way two-thirds or three-quarters of an importation, to our great annoyance and expense, and it is only by repeated and persevering importations that we have been able to obtain all the desirable varieties.

In the United States the culture of the Rose has been very much neglected, until within a few years. Tulips and dahlias have successively been the rage, and although there has long existed a great variety of roses, comparatively few of them have been cultivated, even in the best gardens of the United States. Now the tide is turning. Dahlias are going out of repute, and the Rose is resuming its ancient empire in the queendom of Flora. The advent of the Bourbon and the Remontant, or Perpetual classes, has no doubt materially aided this change, but it is in a great part owing to the easy culture of the plant, and the intrinsic merits and beauty of the flower. The taste of the horticultural public being thus decidedly for the Rose, a demand will exist for all the information respecting soil, planting, cultivating, etc., and this information we shall endeavor to supply in a simple and concise manner, avoiding, as far as possible, all technicalities, and adapting it to the use of the cultivator of a single plant in the crowded border of a city garden, or to the more extended culture of a commercial establishment.

Each cultivator has his peculiar mode of doing things, and there may be those who deem the mode laid down here inferior to their own. From these we should be glad to hear, and to make any corrections they may suggest, where such corrections appear to be founded upon true principles. In order to make our work as perfect as possible, we have not hesitated to add to our own experience all the information derived from a personal inspection of French and English nurseries, and to cull from foreign works and periodicals all that may interest our readers. Such information, as far as it coincides with our own experience, we shall gladly incorporate, with the hope that we may be successful in presenting every fact of interest which may exist respecting the cultivation of our favorite flower.