Timeline of the World (1648 CE – 1783 CE)

Great Events of Period. 1600-1700: Civil and religious liberty fought out in England under the Stuarts. Rise of modern science and philosophy. 1700-1800: Astounding growth of the British Empire. Government in England now and henceforth carried on by a Cabinet Ministry. Development of manufactures in England. Inventions and discoveries. Immense advance in arts and sciences. INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION which powerfully influences social, political and intellectual progress for the next hundred years.

A. D.United States Britain Spain and Portugal France Italy and Church Holland Scandinavia Germany Prussia and Poland Russia Ottomans, India, Japan, China A. D.
   
1649. Trial and execution of Charles I. The Commonwealth.
  
1649. Siege of Paris.
    1648. Poland: The Cossacks revolt and defeat the Poles. John Casimir, King.   
1650  
1652. War with Holland.
1650
1653. CROMWELL, Lord Protector. 
1654. Brazil recovered from the Dutch.
1653. Mazarin enters Paris in triumph.1653. John de Witt , Grand Pensionary of Holland.1653. Sweden: Christina resigns. Charles X. first of the House of Zweibrucken.1653. Poland: War with Russia. 
1654. Russian victories in Poland.
MILTON  (1608-1674).1655. War with England.MOLIERE (1622-1673).REMBRANDT (1607-1669).1655. Charles X. of Sweden invades Poland. 
1656. The Elector of Brandenburg allies himself with Sweden against Poland.
Stuarts restored.  
 
1659. Peace of the Pyrenees.
  
1658. Denmark: War against the Swedes, who overrun Denmark, and menace Copenhagen.
1657. Leopold I., Emperor.1657. Poland cedes Prussia to the Elector.1657. Alliance with Sweden against Poland.
1660. Charles II., King. 
1661.Invasion of Portugal.
1660. Denmark: Peace of Copenhagen. Revolution in Denmark; absolute monarchy established. Prussia acknowledged independent. 
1661. War with Austria.
 
1663. Settlement of North Carolina under royal patent.
1662. Invasion of Hungary.
1664. New Amsterdam occupied by the English. 
1665-1700.Charles II.
 
1665. Tyrol united to Austria.
1664. India: Rise of the Mahratta power. Sivaji takes and sacks Surat.
 
1668. Triple alliance of England, Sweden and Holland against France.
MURILLO (1618-1682).1667-1697. First three wars of Louis XIV.
1667. War with Spain.
 
 
1669. Candia taken from Venice.
1667. Holland: Peace of Breda; loss of New Netherlands.
1670. War between Genoa and Savoy.SPINOZA (1632-1677). 
1671. The Cossacks subjugated.
 1672. War with Holland.1672. Sea fight between the Dutch fleet, under De Witt and De Ruyter, and the English and French fleets; Dutch defeated.
Holland:William III., Stadtholder.
1672. The Emperor and Elector of Brandenburg ally themselves with Holland against France.1672. Invasion of Poland.
1673. War with France to protect Holland.1673. War of Austria and France. 
1674. Sobieski, King of Poland.
1675 1675-1676. King Philip's War in New England. Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia. 
1676. Messina blockaded by the Dutch and Spanish fleets.
1675. The Swedes invade Brandenburg and are defeated at Fehrbellin. 
1676. General revolt of the Hungarians.
1675
 
 
1679. Habeas Corpus Act passed.
 
1678. Peace with Holland and Spain restores tranquility to Europe.
 1677. Battle of the Lund, between the Swedes and Danes; the latter defeated.LEIBNITZ (1646-1716). 
1678. First war with Russia.
NEWTON  (1642-1727).1680. France the most formidable power in Europe.1680. Greater part of Alsace seized by France. 
1682. Ivan and Peter, Czars.
 
1682. War with Austria.
 
1685. James II., King. Rise of the Whigs and Tories.
 
1685. Revocation of the edict of Nantes.
1683. Siege of Vienna by the Turks.
JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704).1686. Buda taken after being held by the Turks one hundred and forty-five years.1686. Russia declares war.
1686. India: The Dekkan conquered by Aurungzeb.
 
1688. Revolution.
 
1688. War of the allies against France.
1687. Joseph I., King of Hungary. 
1688. Prussia: Frederick III.
1687. Revolution in Constantinople. Solyman II., Sultan.
1689-1697. War of William and Mary with the French.1689. Revolt in Catalonia in favor of France. 1689. Alexander VIII., Pope.    1689. Russia: PETER THE GREAT begins personal rule after overthrowing his sister Sophia and repressing the Streltsi.1689. First trade with China.
India:Height of the Mogul power under Aurungzeb.
China: Great influence of Jesuits.
 1689. William III., King, and Mary II., Queen. War with France.
1690. Battle of the Boyne. James defeated, returns to France. 
1691.Incursion of the French into Aragon.
 
 
 
1693. Battle of Marsaglia.
 
 
 
1693. The King of Sweden declared absolute.
1690. Joseph I. elected King of the Romans. 
 
1692. First trade with China.
 1695. Brussels bombarded by the French. 
1696. Poland: Death of Sobieski; succeeded by:
1697. General peace.1697. General peace of Ryswick between France and the allies. 
1699.CHARLES XII. begins to reign. Denmark, Poland and Russia form an alliance against Sweden.
1697. Victories of Prince Eugene  over the Sultan Mustapha at Zenta.1697. Frederick Augustus I. 
1699. Peace of Carlowitz. The Ottoman power broken.
1700   
1701-1714.
 
WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
 
1701-1714.
1700-1721. GREAT NORTHERN WARS. 1700
 
 
1702-1713. Queen Anne's War with the French.
 
1701. Philip V., King.
 
 
1702. Invasion of Holland. Revolt of the Huguenots.
 
 
1702. French victory at Luzzara over the Imperialists.
  
 
1702-1706.Charles XII. sweeps Poland and Russia.
 
1701. Hague alliance.
 
1701. Prussia is erected into a kingdom under Frederick I.
1700. Peter the Great wars with the Northern Powers.
 1702. Queen Anne. War against France and Spain.
 
1704. Gibraltar taken by English.
 
 
1705.Barcelona taken by the Allies.
 
1704. Defeat at Blenheim.
 
 
 
1706. French driven from Italy by Prince Eugene.
 
1704. Battle of Blenheim . Bavarians and French defeated by English and Allies. Germany delivered from Louis XIV.
 
1704. Stanislaus I., King of Poland.
1703. St. Petersburg founded.1703. Mustapha II. deposed by the Janizaries.
1707. Unsuccessful expedition against Port Royal.1707. Act of union of England and Scotland. First united parliament of Great Britain meets.1707. All Spanish possessions in Italy abandoned.1707. Revolt of the Cossack Mazeppa.
1708. Charles XII. of Sweden invades Russia.
 
1711. Charles VI., Emperor.
 
 
1712-1786.Frederick II.
1709. Is defeated at Pultowa  by Peter the Great. Russia becomes a great power.
1713. Treaty of Utrecht which gives Arcadia to the English.1713. Peace of Utrecht.England acquires large American possessions.1713. Peace of Utrecht; perpetual separation of the crown of France and Spain. 
1714. Finland conquered.
1715. Death of Louis XIV.;Louis XV., King.1715. Siege of Corfu raised.1715. Treaty of Antwerp with Austria.1715. Charles returns to Sweden. Prussia and England join the alliance against him.
MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755).1717. Turks lose Belgrade.
1718. New Orleans settled by the French.1718. War with Spain. Quadruple Alliance of the Emperor, France, England and Holland, Against the designs of Spain.
  VOLTAIRE (1694-1778). 
1719. Sicily invaded by the Spanish.
 1718. Charles XII. invades Norway and is killed at the siege of Frederickshall.BACH  (1685-1754).
 
 
 
1724.Spain: Philip V. abdicates but resumes power after some months.
 
 
 
1724-1725.Congress of Cambray to consider claims of Spain and Austria.
1720. Sweden: The queen abdicates in favor of her husband, Frederick I.HANDEL (1685-1759). 
1721. Peter assumes the title “Emperor of all the Russias.”
 
 
1723. Turks and Russians attempt to dismember Persia.
1725   
1727. George II., King of England.
  LINNAEUS (1707-1778).1725. Treaty of Vienna, alliance between Spain and Austria.  
1727. Treaty with China.
 1725
1729. The Carolinas separated. 
 
1733. The Polish succession involves France in war.
 
1730. Clement XII., Pope.
 
1730. Denmark: Christian VI.
 
 
1733. War of the Polish succession.
 
 
1733. Poland: Frederick Augustus II. The diet elects Stanislaus, but is compelled by the Russian army to elect Frederick.
 
1730. Peter II., last of the Romanoffs.
1734. Beginning of the Great Awakening in New England.1734. Conquest of Sicily and Naples by Don Carlos.1734. Stanislaus besieged in Dantzic, escapes to Konigsberg.1734. Turks driven from Persia by Nâdir Shah.
1739. War with Spain.1739. India: Invaded by Nâdir Shah who takes and plunders Delhi.
1740-1748.  WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION—WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION  1740-1748.1740-1786. FREDERICK THE GREAT of Prussia.1740. Renewed invasion of Turkey.
     1741. Sweden: War with Russia. Swedes driven out of Finland.1741. MARIA THERESA succeeds to the hereditary states.
 
 
1745. Troubles in Scotland.
 
1744. War with England and Austria.
D'Alembert (1717-1783).
 
1744. Italy invaded by the French and Spaniards.
1743. Peace of Abo with Sweden gives to Russia southern Finland. 
 
1745. Francis I., husband of Maria Theresa, Emperor.
HUME  (1711-1776).1746. Ferdinand VI., King. 
1747. War with Holland.
1746. French and Spaniards driven from Lombardy. 
1747.Netherlands: William IV., Stadtholder.
1750       
1751.Netherlands: William V., Stadtholder.
     1750
1754-1763. OLD FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR OR SEVEN YEARS WAR: ENGLAND AND PRUSSIA VS. FRANCE, AUSTRIA, RUSSIA, SPAIN AND SWEDEN. 1754-1763.
 1756. Alliance with Prussia.        1756. India: Calcutta taken by Surajah Dowlah of Bengal; the Black Hole.
1759. Invasion of Canada; death of Wolfe. Quebec taken. 
1760-1820. George III.
 
1760. Loss of all Canada.
1762. War with Spain.1762. CATHERINE II. reigns.
FRANKLIN (1706-1790).1763. Peace of Paris.1763. Peace of Paris.1763. Prussia and Austria hold the balance of power on the Continent.
 
1765. Stamp Act resisted in Massachusetts and Virginia.
 
GIBBON  (1737-1794).
1765.Establishment of a British Empire in India.
 
 
 
1767.Jesuits expelled from Spain.
 
 
1766. Denmark: Christian VII.
LESSING (1729-1781).1764. Poland: Stanislaus Poniatowski elected king. 
 
 
 
1768. War with the Ottoman Empire.
 
 
 
 
1768. War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
JAMES WATT (1736-1819).1770. Marriage of the dauphin to Marie Antoinette. 
 
1773. Jesuits expelled from Rome.
 
1772. Despotism re-established in Sweden by Gustavus III.
 
1772. Joseph II. takes part in the first partition of Poland, the territory acquired being made into the Kingdom of Galicia.
 
1772. First partition of Poland, among Russia, Prussia and Austria.
 
 
1773. Ottoman Empire: The Russians are repulsed at Varna and Silistria.Abdul Hamid succeeds.
1774. LOUIS XVI., King.IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804).1774. Revolt of the Cossacks. Peace of Kutchuk-Kainarji between Russia and Turkey.1774. India: Warren Hastings, first British governor-general.
1775 1775-1783. AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR.    1775
1775. April 19, skirmish at Lexington.
June 17, battle of Bunker Hill.
1775. Lord North's “conciliatory measures” rejected by the colonies. 
1776.Declaration of Independence, July 4. British army takes possession of New York. Hessians hired for service in America.ARKWRIGHT (1732-1792).1776. Franklin in Paris.
1777. Battle of Saratoga  and critical battle of the Revolution. 
1778. Siege and capture of Pondicherry, by the English.
1777. Portugal: Maria, Queen. 
1778. Alliance with America.
 
1778. War of the Bavarian succession. Bavaria seized by Germany.
 
1778. India: War between the English and the Mahrattas.
1779. Spain: Alliance with the American colonists.MOZART (1756-1791).
 
1781. Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown.
 
 
1783. Treaty of Versailles. Independence of the United States acknowledged.
1780. Rochambeau sent to aid the Americans.1780. Declaration of the Armed Neutrality for the protection of neutral flags  against the right of maritime search claimed by England—joined by Denmark and Sweden. Prussia and Austria, 1781. Portugal, 1782.
LAVOISIER (1743-1794).
1783. Peace of Versailles between France, Spain, England and America.