Timeline of the World (1848 CE – 1871 CE)

Great Events of Period. Continued rapid advancement of science, inventions and discoveries. Increased philanthropic effort and intellectual enlightenment. Unification of Italy. Commercial treaties with China and Japan. American Civil War. Union of Austria and Hungary. Franco-Prussian War. Establishment of the German Empire.

A. D.United States Spain and Portugal Great Britain France Italy and Church Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Scandinavia The German Confederation Russia Turkey, Greece, China, India, Japan A. D.
Prussia Austria
1849. Zachary Taylor, President. Railroad from Boston to New York.
1849. Mooltan in India taken.
1848-1852.Second Republic. 
1849. Catania, Syracuse, and Palermo taken by assault.Mazzini 's proclamation of provisional government.Victor Emanuel , King. Rome surrenders to the French; Garibaldi leaves city. Bourbon rule begins.
1849. The king declines the Imperial Crown. Armistice between Prussia and Denmark.
1849. New constitution promulgated.
1849. Aids Austria in subduing Hungary.
1850 1850. Attempted invasion of Cuba by filibusters. Death of President Taylor; Millard Fillmore, President. Texas boundary settled. Fugitive Slave Law passed.1850. The war in Lahore ended. The Punjab annexed to the British Crown.
1850-1853.Kafir War in South Africa.
1850. Jerome Bonaparte, Field-Marshal.1850. Denmark: Bloody battle of Idstedt, between the Danes and Schleswig-Holsteiners.1850. Treaty of peace with Denmark. New constitution for Prussia.1850. Harbor of Sebastopol completed.1850. Turkey: Insurrection in Bosnia.
1850-1864.China: Taiping rebellion.
1851. Erie railway opened. Charleston Convention. Kossuth arrives in New York.1851. Death of Dodoy, “Prince of Peace.”1851. Continuance of the Kafir war. Kossuth visits England.1851. Louis Kossuth sentenced to death at Pesth.
1852-1870.Second Empire.
1852.Napoleon III.declared Emperor.
1852. CAVOUR becomes Prime Minister in Piedmont.1852. Emperor of Austria visits Emperor of Prussia.1852. Greece: Convention of London by England, France, Prussia, Bavaria and Greece in reference to the affairs of Greece.
1852. Turkey: War between the Turks and Montenegrins.
1853. Franklin Pierce, President. Gadsden Purchase.1853. Queen Victoria visits Ireland. Kafir war ended.1853. Denmark: Parliament prorogued and a “fundamental” law issued.
1853. Belgium: Marriage of the Duke of Brabant, heir-apparent of the throne, and the Archduchess Maria.
Holland: The first chamber adopts the much-disputed law on religious liberty.
1853. Plot to overthrow the government.1853. War declared against Turkey.
1854. Treaty with Japan. Kansas-Nebraska Bill passed. Ostend Manifesto issued.1854. Military insurrection under O'Donnell.1854-1856. CRIMEAN WAR. Treaty of alliance with France.1854. War declared against Russia.1854. Treaty with Austria, offensive and defensive.1854. Alliance with England and France.1854-1856. CRIMEAN WAR. Russia vs. Turkey aided by Great Britain, France and Sardinia.
1854. War with France and England. Siege of Sebastopol. Battle of Balak-lava.1854. Japan: Treaty with the United States.
1855. Panama Railroad completed. Troubles in Kansas.1855. British fleet bombards and partially destroys Canton, China.1855. Important concordant between Italy and Austria.1855. Death of Nicholas I. Alexander II., Emperor.
ROBERT BROWNING (1812-1889).1856. Peace with Russia.1856. Hungarians granted amnesty.1856. Destruction of Sebastopol docks. Evacuation of Crimea.
1857. Dred Scott decision. James Buchanan, President. Great financial panic.1857-1858.Sepoy Mutiny.Sepoys vs. English.1857-1858. Sepoy Mutiny.
1857-1860.China: Second war with Great Britain.
1859. John Brown captures Harpers Ferry.
1859. War with Morocco.
1858. Completion of the Atlantic telegraph cable. 
1859. THE WAR OF ITALIAN LIBERATION. Sardinia-Piedmont and France vs. Austria.
1859. Sweden: Oscar I., died July 8; succeeded by his son Charles XV.
1858. Partial emancipation of the serfs.
 Peace after battle of Solferino.
1860. South Carolina passes ordinance of secession.1860. Defeat of the Moors.1860. Rebellion in India subdued. Neutrality proclaimed during the American Civil War.1860. Commercial treaty with England.1860.Garibaldi lands in Sicily, and assumes dictatorship.
1861-1865. AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. Federal Government of United States vs. Southern Confederacy. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President.1861. Annexation of Santo Domingo. Intervention in Mexico.1861. Victor Emanuel II., King of Sardinia, first King of Italy.1861. William I., King.1861. New constitution for the Austrian monarchy.
TENNYSON (1809-1892).1862. Great distress caused by American Civil War.1862. Garibaldi establishes a provisional government.1862. BISMARCK, Premier.1862. Amnesty to political offenders in Hungary.1862. Nesselrode, Chancellor.1862. Bloody conflict between Servians and Turks in Belgrade.
1863. Battle of Gettysburg.DARWIN 1809-1882.1863. The French occupy Mexico.1863. Denmark: Christian IX. succeeds Frederick VII.1863. King resolves to govern without parliament. Congress of German sovereigns at Frankfort. “One Federal State” proposed.1863. Termination of serfdom.
1864. Rupture with Peru. 1864. Maximilian accepts Mexican crown.1864. Florence made capital of Italy.1864. Peace between Denmark and the allies, to whom Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg are surrendered.1864. DANISH WAR. Austria and Prussia vs. Denmark.1864. Emigration of Caucasian tribes into Turkey.1864. George of Denmark becomes King of Greece.
1865. Assassination of President Lincoln; Andrew Johnson, President.1865. Dispute with Chile.1865. Fenian outbreaks in Ireland.
British and French governments rescind their recognition of the Confederate States of America.
1865. Ionian Isles made over to Greece.1865. Leopold II. succeeds his father, Leopold I. in Belgium.  
1866. Civil Rights Bill passed. Atlantic telegraph completed.1866. Military insurrection headed by General Prim.1866. Austrian War. Venetia proclaimed a part of Italy.1866-1871. North German Confederation.
1866. AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR. Prussia with smaller North German States and Italy vs. Austria, Hanover, Saxony and South German States.
1866. Inauguration of trial by jury. War with Bokhara.
1867. General amnesty proclamation. Purchase of Alaska.1867. Death of Marshal O'Donnell.1867. Great exposition in Paris.1867. Garibaldi and the Papal States.1867. North German Constitution accepted.1867. Autonomy for Hungary announced. Emperor crowned King of Hungary.1867. Alaska sold to the United States.
1868. Burlingame treaty with China.1868. Queen deposed.1868.Gladstone , Premier PASTEUR 1822-1895.HELMHOLTZ 1821-1894.1868. Japan: End of the Shogunate. Restoration of the Mikado.
1869. U. S.Grant , President. Union Pacific railway opened for traffic.1869. Vatican Council opened at Rome.
1870. Isabella II. abdicates; Amadeus, King.1870. Irish Land Act passed.1870. Third Republic.
1870-1871.FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR. France vs. Prussia supported by all German States including South.Battle of Sedan.Surrender of Metz.
1870. Rome is annexed to Italy and declared the capital.HENRIK IBSEN 1828-1908.1870-1871. FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR. Battle of Sedan.1870. Concordat with Rome suspended.
1871. Sagasta, Prime Minister.HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903).1871. Capitulation of Paris. Peace ratified.1871- ——.House of Hohenzollern.
1871. King of Prussia proclaimed Emperor of Germany.
1871. New German Empire recognized.1871. Electric telegraph between Russia and Japan.1871. Japan: Feudalism abolished.