Timeline of the World (1871 CE – 1917 CE)

From the Founding of the German Empire to the Close of the European War and the Reconstruction of Europe, 1871-1917

A. D.United States Spain and Portugal Great Britain Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Scandinavia France Italy and Church Germany Austria-Hungary Russia Turkey and Balkans, China, India, Japan A. D.
     
1872. One thousandth anniversary of kingdom of Norway celebrated. Death of Charles XV. of Sweden, succeeded by Oscar II. Coinage made uniform in Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
  1871. William I., emperor.    
1873. Payment of Alabama claims to the United States.1873. Marshal MacMahon, president.1873. Khiva captured.
1874. Alfonso XII., king.1874. Death of Guizot.
1875 1875. Civil war.1875. Insurrection against the Turks in Herzegovina.
Insurrection in Bosnia.
1875
 
1877. R. B. Hayes, president.
1876. Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India. 
1877. Attempted assassination of emperor.
 
1877. War against Turkey.
1876. Sultan Murad deposed; Abdul Hamid II. succeeds.
Six weeks' armistice between Turkey and Servia.
Constitution for Turkey announced.
 
1879. Jules Grevy, president.
1878. Death of Victor Emmanuel II. Humbert, king. Death of Pius IX. Leo XIII., pope.1878. Occupation of Bosnia.1878. Spread of Nihilism in the empire.
1880 1880. Many Nihilists imprisoned and executed.1880
1881. James A. Garfield, president.
President Garfield assassinated, July 2d; Chester A. Arthur, president.
 
 
1883. Sagasta again minister.
 
1882. Attempt on life of Queen Victoria.
 
1882. Death of Garibaldi.
 
 
1883. Italy joins the alliance between Germany and Austria, thus forming the Triple Alliance.
 
1882. Six hundredth anniversary of the House of Hapsburg.
1881. Alexander II. assassinated.
Alexander III., emperor.
1881. Roumania declared a kingdom.
 
1885. Grover Cleveland, president.
Apache Indian War.
 
1885. War with Abyssinia.
1884. German annexations on African slave coast; December 19, in Pacific Ocean, beginnings of German colonial policy. 
1885. Ship canal from St. Petersburg to Cronstadt opened.
Trouble with the Afghans.
 
1885. Outbreak of war between Servia and Bulgaria.
 
1887. Queen's Jubilee.
 
1887. Sadi-Carnot, president.
 
1887. Alliance of Italy with Austria-Hungary and Germany signed. Crispi, prime minister.
 
 
1888. Accession and death of Frederick III. William II., emperor.
1886. Army put on war footing of one million five hundred thousand men.1886. Russia interferes in Bulgaria.
1888. Central Asian railway opened.
1886. Servia, Bulgaria and Greece compelled by the powers to disarm.
Treaty of peace signed between Servia and Bulgaria.
1889. Benjamin Harrison, president.
Johnstown flood.
1889. Trial by jury first put in force.
Accession of Carlos I. to Portuguese throne on death of his father, Luis I.
1889. Great labor strikes.1889. Japan's Constitution proclaimed.
1890 1890. McKinley tariff bill passed.1890. Castillo, premier.1890. Stanley returns from Africa.1890. Holland: William III. of the Netherlands dies, and is succeeded by his daughter, Wilhelmina, under the regency of her mother.1890. War with Dahomey.1890. Resignation of Bismarck as chancellor.1890-1892. Famine through the empire.1890
1891. Switzerland: Celebration of the six hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the Swiss Confederacy. 
1892. Panama scandals.
1891. Treaty of Italy with Great Britain relative to East Africa.
Triple Alliance renewed.
1891. Triple Alliance renewed.1891. Renewal of Triple Alliance.1891. Imperial ukase orders expulsion of Jews from Moscow.
1893. Grover Cleveland, president.
Chinese exclusion bill approved.
World's Columbian exposition at Chicago.
1893. War with Morocco.1893. Behring Sea arbitration.1893. Belgium: Universal suffrage in combination with plural voting established.1893. Pope's Jubilee at Rome.1893. Anti-Jesuit law repealed.
1894. Manchester ship canal opened.1894. Denmark: Fall of the Estrup ministry, succeeded by a cabinet under Reeds-Thott.1894. President Carnot assassinated at Lyons. M. Casimir-Perier, president.
Captain Dreyfus tried and imprisoned.
1894. Commercial treaty with Russia. New parliament house opened.1894. Commercial treaty with Russia ratified.1894. Death of Alexander III.
Nicholas II., czar.
1894. Turkey: British, French and Russian ambassadors present note to sultan demanding reforms in Armenia.
1894-1895.Chinese-Japanese war.
1895. President Casimir-Perier resigns. M. Felix Faure, president.
Death of PASTEUR.
1895. North Sea and Baltic canal opened. Restrictions imposed on American insurance companies.1895. Anti-Semitic agitation.1895. Diplomatic relations with Abyssinia.
Persecution of the Jews.
 
1897. William McKinley, president.
 
1897.Assassination of Premier Canovas del Castillo. Scheme of Cuban autonomy approved.
 
1897. Blackwell tunnel opened. The Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrated.
1896. Belgium: International Bimetallic Congress assembles at Brussels. 
1897. Ten-hour law for railway employes passed.
1896. Peace with Abyssinia.
Italy abandons claims to a protectorate over that country.
1896. New civil code for the empire completed.1896. Archduke Karl Ludwig, heir to the throne, dies. Millennial exposition at Budapest.1896. First official census of the empire.
1897. Judicial reform in Siberia.
 
1897. Turko-Grecian war. China: Kiau-Chau, with surrounding zone, leased to Germany for ninety-nine years. Port Arthur and Ta-lien-wan leased to Russia for twenty-five years.
1898. Destruction of the “Maine” at Havana.
Spanish-American war between United States and Spain. Treaty of Paris.
1898. Death of Gladstone. Irish local government bill passed. Imperial penny postage goes into effect.1898. Review of Dreyfus case granted.1898. Pope offers to mediate in the Cuban question.1898. Death of Bismarck. Emperor visits Constantinople and Jerusalem.1898. Assassination of the empress by an anarchist at Geneva.
Ausgleich of 1867 renewed.
1898. Port Arthur leased from China.
1899. Cuba is relinquished by Spain. Philippines and Porto Rico acquired.1899. Death of Premier Canovas of Spain.
Spain sells the Caroline, Pelew and Ladrone islands to Germany.
1899. The Boer war in South Africa.1899. Czar proposes universal peace. The Finnish diet is deprived of the exclusive right of legislation and a thorough policy of Russification begun.
1900 1900. Civil government established in the Philippines.
Chinese troubles.
1900. Field Marshal Roberts takes command in South Africa.1900. Assassination of King Humbert of Italy. Victor Emmanuel III., king.1900. Abolition of the Roman law throughout Germany.1900. Marriage of the heir apparent, Francis Ferdinand.1900. China: Boxer uprising.1900
1901. Assassination of President McKinley by the anarchist Czolgosz. Capture of Aguinaldo. Death of ex-President Harrison.1901. Census of the Indian empire taken. Death of Queen Victoria and accession of Edward VII.1901. The Norwegian Parliament confers the franchise in municipal and communal elections on women tax-payers.
Marriage of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to Duke Henry of Mecklenberg-Schwerin.
1901. Diplomatic relations with Turkey suspended.1901. Bicentenary of the coronation of the first king of Prussia.1901. Count Tolstoi excommunicated.1901. Turkey pays to the United States the claims advanced in behalf of the missionaries in Asia Minor for losses incurred during the Armenian disturbances of 1895-1896.
1902. Cuban independence under Platt amendment. President Roosevelt recommends the purchase of the Panama Canal company.1902. Alfonso XIII., king.1902. The British-Japanese alliance signed. Boer war ended. Marquis of Salisbury resigns as premier.1902. M. Combes forms a new French ministry.1902. Prince Henry of Prussia visits the United States.
England and Germany press their Venezuelan claims.
1902. Triple Alliance renewed. The language question between Germany and Czechs.1902. Treaty of alliance signed between Great Britain and Japan.
1903. Panama Canal treaty signed with Colombia. Commercial treaty with China signed. Independence of Panama recognized.1903. King Edward visits the king of Italy. Irish land bill passed the Houses of Parliament.1903. Dreyfus case reopened. President Loubet visits King Edward.1903. Death of Pope Leo XIII.
Pope Pius X.
1903. New tariff bill. Visit of the czar of Russia.1903. Russo-Japanese crisis.1903. Servia: A band of conspirators invade the royal palace and slay King Alexander and Queen Draga.
The national assembly chooses Peter Karageorgevitch king.
1904. Great Baltimore fire. U. S. Senator Burton convicted of malfeasance in office. St. Louis exposition opened.1904. Death of ex-Queen Isabella at Paris.1904. Col. Younghusband enters Tibet.1904. Arbitration treaties with Holland, Spain, Sweden, Norway and the United States. Bill for separation of church and state introduced.1904. King and queen of Italy visit England.1904. German troops defeated in Africa.1904. Ultimatum to the Sultan issued. Great railway strike.1904. War with Japan over Manchuria begun.1904. Japanese war with Russia.
1905. Protocol with Santo Domingo.1905. Attempted assassination of the king in Paris.1905. Resignation of Lord Curson as viceroy of India.1905. Norway: Haakon VII., king.1905. The Moroccan situation grows in complexity.1905. The railway bills passed in Italy.1905. Intervention of Germany in Moroccan affairs.
The new commercial treaties.
Marriage of the crown prince.
1905. Treaty with Germany ratified.
Universal suffrage on an educational basis advocated.
1905. Fall of Port Arthur and end of war. Great railway strike at Petrograd, Warsaw and Moscow. Constitution granted by czar and the Duma authorized.1905. The Russo-Japanese peace treaty ratified.
1906. Riot at Brownsville, Texas. The president visited Panama. Great earthquake at San Francisco.1906. King Alfonso married to Princess Victoria of England.1906. King Edward visits Paris.1906. Death of King Christian of Denmark. Norway and Sweden independent kingdoms.
The crown prince of Denmark is proclaimed King Frederick VIII.
The Belgian Chamber votes in favor of annexing the Congo Free State.
1906. M. Fallières, president. The church controversy. The Pope's encyclical. M. Sarcien, premier.1906. Sonnino, premier.
International exhibition at Milan.
1906. Propaganda against Socialism.1906. Prince Schillingfurst succeeds Baron Gautch.1906. The czar opened the first Russian Duma.
1907. Philippine assembly opened.1907. King and queen visit England.1907. King Edward and Emperor Francis Joseph meet at Ischl.1907. Death of Oscar II. of Sweden. Gustav V., king. Norwegian Parliament votes to grant the suffrage to about three hundred thousand women, based upon a property qualification.1907. Wine growers' agitation. French occupation of Morocco.1907. Italy signs arbitration treaty with Argentina.1907. German emperor visited London.1907. Universal suffrage bill passed.1907. Third Russian Duma convened. Resignation of Count Witte as prime minister of Russia.1907. Abdication of Korean emperor.
1908. Voyage of the Pacific fleet to Asiatic waters.1908. Asquith, premier.
1909. Tariff revised.1909. Belgium: Albert I., king.1909. Bosnia and Herzegovina acquired.
1910 1910. Elections result in great Democratic gains.1910. Spain recalled its envoy to the vatican.
Portugal becomes a republic.
1910. Death of King Edward VII. Accession of George V.1910. Denmark: Christian X., king.1910. Briand cabinet resigned.1910. Decree issued by the king of Greece for a revision of the constitution.1910. Emperor William received ex-President Roosevelt.1910. Death of Count Tolstoi.1910. Japan annexed Korea.
Montenegro became a kingdom with Nicholas as king.
1910
1911. Extra session of Congress called by President Taft. Canadian reciprocity bill passed.1911. Further creation of religious orders prohibited.1911. King George formally opens the British Parliament.1911. New ministry formed by premier.1911. Second Parliament assembles.
1911-1912.War with Turkey over Tripoli.
1911. The Emperor urged a policy of reclamation.1911. Austria strengthens her army and navy.1911. Russian army mobilized on Chinese frontier.
Premier Stolypin assassinated.
1912. Tariff revision begun by Congress.1912. King George returns from Durbar, in India. Steamship “Titanic” sinks with appalling loss of life.1912. Large Socialist gains in German Diet.1912. Death of Premier Aerenthal.1912. Greece joins Balkan Allies in war against Turkey.
Death of Mutsuhito; Yoshito becomes mikado of Japan.
1913. Democratic Party comes into power. Parcels Post System inaugurated. Woodrow Wilson inaugurated president.1913. Continued Strife between Royalists and Republicans.
Attempted assassination of King Alfonso.
1913. Colonies aid policy of Naval Expansion.1913. Raymond Poincaré inaugurated president.1913. Declares support of Triple Alliance.1913. Mobilize army on Servian frontier to conserve interests of Empire pending Balkan war.
Archduke and Duchess of Austria assassinated in Bosnia.
1913. Serfdom obliterated from entire empire.1913. Assassination of King George of Greece. Constantine, king. China a republic; Yuan, president.
Greatest European War in History begins with the British Empire, France, Russia, Belgium, Japan, Servia, Italy, Portugal and Roumania on one side, and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria on the other.
1914. Anti-trust legislation begun in Congress. Declares neutrality in the European war. New regional banking system goes into operation. Panama Canal officially opened.1914. Portuguese cabinet resigns, Bernardino Machado, premier. Portugal supports the Triple Entente.1914. King George urges mutual concessions in Irish Home Rule controversy.
Wages war on the Teutonic Alliance as a member of Triple Entente.
 1914. A new political party is formed to be known as the Briandist. Joins Great Britain and Russia in war upon Teutonic Alliance. 1914. Germany's new fiscal policy lays a tax on royalty. Declares war on the Triple Entente.1914. Austria adopts a strong policy against Balkan expansion. Joins Germany in a declaration of war on the Triple Entente.1914. Russian Premier Kokovtsov resigns.
As a member of the Triple Entente joins in war on the Teutonic Alliance.
1914. Greece retains the Aegean islands wrested from Turkey.
1915. American protectorate established over Haiti. La Follette Seaman's Act passed by Congress. Diplomatic interchanges with Germany concerning rights of neutral ships. Carranza government in Mexico recognized by the United States.1915. The Spanish cabinet resigns. Spain maintains strict neutrality in European war.1915. War Council created to direct the policies of the Allies in the European war. Gigantic war loans strain British finances. The British blockade of the Central Powers only partially successful.1915. Holland continues her policy of strict neutrality.
Belgium passes under the military rule of Germany.
1915. The Viviani coalition ministry resigned. Immense war loans successfully floated.1915. Italy joins the Triple Entente in the war. Declares war on Bulgaria.1915. Wages a ruthless submarine war on allied shipping and neutral vessels carrying contraband of war. Shows astonishing efficiency in the conduct of the war against the Entente Allies.1915. At the suggestion of the United States, its Ambassador, Dr. Dumba, is recalled from Washington.1915. Russia declares war on Bulgaria. Loses Poland and its capital, Warsaw, to the Teutonic Allies.1915. King Constantine of Greece refuses to support Venizelos' pro-allies policy. Latter resigns as premier.
Turkey successfully repulsed the attempt of the Entente Allies to force the Dardanelles.
Bulgaria enters the war on behalf of the Teutonic Allies.
Yoshohito crowned emperor of Japan.
1916. Year of great industrial and commercial activity and high prices. Woodrow Wilson re-elected President.
Woman suffrage a pronounced political power.
Santo Domingo passes under the military rule of the United States. President sends a military force into Mexico.
1916. Martial law is declared throughout Spain on account of the widespread railway strike.1916. British and French forces compelled to withdraw from operations against the Dardanelles with disastrous losses. Rebellious uprising in Ireland suppressed by military force. Home Rule agitation continues. Asquith cabinet overthrown, and David Lloyd George made premier with practically dictatorial powers.1916. Frequent Belgian protests against German military rule. Many Belgians deported to Germany as a military measure.1916. Verdun is successfully defended against violent assaults of the Germanic forces. Gen. Joffre is succeeded as commander-in-chief of the French army by General Petain.
A war council succeeds the general ministry.
1916. Italian military movements ineffective on the Austrian frontier. A change of ministry forecasted.1916. German military operations and conquests stand out in marked contrast with those of the Entente Allies. Belgium, Servia, Montenegro, Poland, Lithuania, Albania and Roumania are held under Teutonic rule. Poland is declared independent by Germany and Austria.1916. Austria-Hungary proves a powerful aid to the Teutonic Allies in the Balkans. Emperor Francis Joseph dies and is succeeded on the throne by Emperor Charles I.1916. Premier Sturmer resigns and is succeeded by M. Trepoff.
Russian and Roumanian armies are defeated and driven back with frightful losses in the Balkans.
1916. Roumania enters the war on side of the Entente, and is conquered by the Teutonic-Bulgar forces with the loss of its capital, Bucharest.
President Yuan of China assassinated. Li Yuan-hung becomes president.
Premier Okuma of Japan resigns, and is succeeded by Count Terauchi, an aggressive champion of both Japan and China.
1917. Famous “Peace Note” issued to the nations of the world by President Wilson.
Rupture with Germany, and diplomatic relations severed.
War declared by the United States on Germany, and war loan of seven billion dollars passed by Congress.
1917. Seventh attempt made upon the life of King Alfonso.1917. Great Britain rejects the peace overtures of the Central Powers.
Sends envoys, headed by ex-premier Balfour, to United States for an Allied War Council.
1917. France joins Great Britain in rejecting the Kaiser's peace overtures.
Ex-premier Viviana and General Joffre sent to United States as members of the Allied War Council.
1917. Conference of Entente Allies held in Rome.
Much discontent in Italy over the war.
1917. The German government sends peace overtures to belligerent and neutral nations.
Germany declares a rigid blockade of the Entente Powers.
1917. Austro-Bulgarian army makes a strong drive against Roumania, and Russia.
Emperor Charles crowned King of Hungary.
1917. The Russian government supports France and Great Britain in rejecting peace overtures of the Central Powers.
Russian monarchy overthrown; Czar abdicates and a republic is established.
1917. Great political unrest in India.
Turkey revokes all treaties limiting her absolute independence as a nation.