Timeline of the World (843 CE -1215 CE)

Great Events of Period. 900-1000: Norse ravages and conquests continue; also private wars. 1000-1100: Increasing and beneficent power of the church exerted in the direction of order. Normans in Italy and Sicily. The Norman conquest of England; which as regards good government far surpasses all other countries. Quarrels between popes and emperors begin. 1100-1200: Quarrels between popes and emperors continue; zenith of papal power; Criticism revived. Private wars lessen; advance in power of kings and of towns at expense of the feudal baronage. The Crusades. 1200-1300: Rise of universities and of mendicant Friars. Quarrels between popes and emperors still continue. Last Crusades. English liberties recognized by the crown. Magna Charta.

A. D.Spain Britain France Germany Italy Church Scandinavia and Slavs Eastern Empire Saracens China, Japan, India A. D.
850           850
855. Kingdom divided. Louis II., Emperor, obtains Italy and Rhætia till 875. Charles, Provence, till 863. 
 
860. Separation of the Greek and Latin Churches.
 
 
 
862. Russia: Rurik, first grand prince.
 
859. Japan: Powerful Seiwa family arises.
   
 
864-1131.Kingdom of Barcelona.
 
 
866. Invasion of the Danes.
    
 
 
867. Pope Hadrian II., Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, deposed.
863-1030. Norway: Harold Harfargar to St. Olaf. 
 
 
867-1057.Eastern emperors of the Macedonian line.
 
 
 
 
870-892.Muattemed re-establishes the capital at Bagdad.
871-900. ALFRED THE GREAT. 
872. Pope John VIII.
875    
876. Kingdom divided: Charles the Fat obtains Suabia and Alsace till 887.
 
 
Louis  the Younger, Saxony and Thuringia till 882.
 
 
Carloman,Bavaria, etc. till 879; becomes King of Italy, 877.
     875
 
885-1512.Kingdom of Navarre.
884. Charles the Fat reunites the monarchy of the Franks. 
 
 
895. Hungary: Magyars under Arpad enter the Kingdom.
 
 
886-911. Leo VI., the Philosopher.
  
900   
901-924. Edward the Elder, the first prince who takes the title of King of England.
Rollo, the Dane, forces Charles to confer on him the province of Normandy and becomes:      
 
907-960.China: Period of five dynasties.
900
 
912-961.Abderrahman III. The greatest Arab prince of Spain; splendid edifices built; learning encouraged; commerce flourishes.
 
912. Robert, Duke of Normandy; capital Rouen.
 
 
 
919-1024. Kings and Emperors of the Saxon house.
911. The Northmen in France embrace Christianity.  
 
917. The Bulgarians besiege Constantinople.
919-936. Henry I., the Fowler, a great prince, consolidates the empire. 
925  France is now divided among the powerful barons, who exercise sovereign power in their respective domains. 
 
936-973. OTHO the GREAT.
  
927. Odo, abbot of Cluny, establishes celebrated code of discipline.
  
 
 
941. Russian expedition against Constantinople, under Igor.
  925
950   
955. Decisive victory over the Huns, which leads to the consolidation of the margravate of Austria.
950-961. Berenger II., submitted to Otto as his suzerain.   
 
956. Armenia and the provinces between the Black and the Caspian Sea, recovered from the Saracens.
  950
  
 
961-965. Otho's second expedition into Italy; he dethrones Berenger; is crowned king, and emperor.
959. St. Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury and attempts to reform the church; enforcing clerical celibacy.959-963. Romanus II. 
960. China: Tai Tsoo founder of later Sung dynasty.
962. Makes Rome his capital. 
 
966. Poland receives Christianity under Miecislas.
 
964-975. Cyprus, Cilicia and Antioch are captured by Nicephorus; Syria is overrun, and, under Zimisces, the Greeks penetrate to the Tigris.
967. Otho II. crowned emperor.  
969. The Fatimites become masters of Egypt, with Cairo as the capital.
975   
 
978-1016.Ethelred the Unready.
New invasion of the Danes.
      
976-1025. Basil II.
 
 
 
980. Seljuk, a Turk officer of the khan of Tartary, becomes a Mohammedan, and settles in Samarcand.
 975
House of Capet
 987-996. Hugh Capet.
France, for a long period before and after the accession of the Capets, has no national history; the royal authority is now restricted to the city in which the court resides.
 
989. Byzantine Christianity propagated in Russia by Vladimir the Great.
999. Pope Sylvester II.
1000 1000-1035. Sancho III., the Great, King of Navarre and Castile. There existed henceforward three Christian kingdoms in Spain: 1, Castile-Leon; 2, Navarre; 3, Aragon.
Golden age of Arabian literature in Spain.
 
 
1016-1035.Canute the Great, King of Denmark.
 
1002-1024.Henry, Duke of Bavaria, a just and pious king.
Continual wars with the Poles and Italy.
Venice, Genoa, and Pisa rise in power, opulence and civilization.    1000-1186. India: Supremacy of Ghazni.1000
1017-1041. Danish kings.House of Franconia
 
 
1024-1039.Conrad II., the Salic.
 
1019. Russia: Yaroslaff the Great.
1018. Bulgaria again reduced to a Grecian province.
1025  
1026. Hixem III.
 
   
 
1029. Settlement of the Normans in South Italy.
  1025-1028. Constantine IX.
Culmination point of Byzantine greatness. Greeks greatest merchants and capitalists of the world during this century.
 Golden Age of Rajput civilization in India.1025
1030. With him ends the Califate of the West. 
1039-1056.HENRY III. He defeats the Bohemians and Hungarians and makes both tributary.The imperial power at its highest point.
 
1042. The Saxon line restored.
1042-1066.Edward the Confessor. French Normans become a new source of trouble.
1041. They conquer Apulia from the Greeks; 1060, Calabria; 1060-1090, Sicily. 
1042. Turks invade and conquer Persia.
The  kingdom of Ghizni declines after 1032, and is confined to India; falls 1183.
1050    
1056-1106.Henry IV.
   
 
1057-1185.Eastern emperors of the houses of the Ducas and the Comnenes. Southern Italy lost to the Normans.
 1050
1059. Quarrels between the Popes and German Emperors respecting investitures and nomination to the Holy See.
1060-1108. Philip I. 1060. Robert Guiscard, first duke.
1060-1090. Sicily conquered by Count Roger, brother of Robert.Robert invades the Greek Empire and gains the battle of Durazzo.
 
 
1072. Alfonso VI. of Castile, enlarges his dominions by conquests from the Mohammedans.
1066. Harold elected king, but is defeated and slain in the battle of Hastings , which gives England to William.
1066-1154.Norman Kings.
1066-1087.WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
1066. William, Duke of Normandy, invades England. 
 
1073. POPE GREGORY VII.
  
Papacy  attains great power.
1075    
 
1077. Hungary: Ladislas I., the Saint.
  
1076. Jerusalem captured by Turks.
 1075
 
1085. The Cid. Toledo is taken by Alfonso VI. after a three years' siege.
1084. Bohemia erected into a kingdom by the Emperor Henry IV.1084. Seljuks in Asia Minor.
1086. The battle of Zalaca. 
1087-1100.William II., Rufus. Revolt of the Norman nobles. The feudal system established in England.
 
 
1088. Pope Urban II.
 
 
 
1092. The Seljuk Empire falls apart into a number of smaller states. Iconium or Roum, Damascus, Aleppo, Kerman and Iran.
 
1096. The First Crusade.Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless.
1095-1270. The First Crusade.
1099. Pope Pascal II.1099. Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon, elected king by the army.
1100  1100-1135.Henry I., Beauclerc.   1100-1523. Denmark: Introduction of Feudal system to Independence of Sweden.
1100-1468.Norway.
1100-1448.Sweden.
  1100
1101. Robert, Duke of Normandy, invades England.
1103-1106. Henry invades and conquers Normandy. 
1106-1125. Henry V., Emperor of Germany and King of Italy.
 
 
1119. Pope Calixtus II.
1125  
 
1139. Kingdom of Portugal.
Wars between the French and English, and rise of rivalry between these two nations, which lasts for three centuries and a half.House of Hohenstaufen
1138-1152.Conrad I., elected emperor.
 
 
1139. The two Sicilies erected into a kingdom under Roger.
     
1127. China: Kaou Tsung, Emperor.
1125
  
1147. The Second Crusade preached by St. Bernard and joined by the Emperor Conrad and Louis VII. of France.
Rise of the factions of Guelfs and Ghibelines.1146. The Second Crusade.
 
The  power of the crusaders declines.
1150   
 
1154-1399.Plantagenets.
1154-1189. Henry II., Plantagenet.
 
1152-1190.Frederic I., Barbarossa, Emperor and King, one of the most heroic figures of the Middle Age.
  
 
1154. Pope Hadrian IV.
   1150
 
 
 
1159. War between France and England.
 
 
1158. Venice a great maritime power.
 
 
 
1159. Pope Alexander III.
 
1157.Denmark: Waldemar I., the Great.
1156. Japan: War between the families of Gen  and Hei.
 
 
1171-1172.Conquest of Ireland.
The French language cultivated.1166. Frederic in Italy. League of the Italian cities, 1167, to preserve their liberties. 
1170. The Waldenses.
 
 
1171-1193.Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt. Extends his dominions in Egypt, conquers Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia and Arabia.
1175   
 
 
 
 
 
1189-1199.Richard I., the Lion-hearted. Dreadful massacre of the Jews at his coronation.
 
 
1180-1223.Philip II., the greatest prince since Charlemagne.
 
 
 
1183. Peace of Constance re-establishes the independence of the Italian Republics.
  
1177. Poland: Casimir the Just.
 
 
 
 
1185-1204.Dynasty of Angelus.
 
 
 
 
 
1186-1206.India: The Afghans of Ghor rule.
1175
1189. Third Crusade  led by Philip Augustus, of France; Richard, of England; and Frederic Barbarossa.1189. The Third Crusade.
  1190-1198. Henry VI., Emperor and King of Italy and the Sicilies. 
1191. Pope Celestine III.
 
 
1193. Saladin dies; his dominions divided.
1195. Battle of Alarcon in which the Christians are defeated. 
 
1199-1216. John usurps over Arthur, the son of his elder brother, Geoffrey.
 
1198. Philip of Suabia and Otho of Saxony, dispute the crown; the former supported by the Ghibelines, the latter by the Guelfs.
  
1198. Pope Innocent III.
1200   
1201-1206. War with France; Philip espouses the cause of Prince Arthur.
 
 
 
1204. Venice aggrandized by the conquest of Constantinople.
Papal power attains its climax. It is supreme over secular power. 
 
1202-1241.Denmark: Waldemar II., the Conqueror.
 
 
 
1204. New revolution. The Crusaders return, again take Constantinople.
1204-1261. Latin Empire.
 
 
1202. The Fourth Crusade.
 
 
 
 
1206.Genghis Khan becomes emperor of the Mongols.
1200
 
 
1212. Battle of Navas de Tolosa; a victory for the Christians.
 1202. The Fourth Crusade under Boniface of Montferrat. 
 
1212-1250.Frederic II. becomes emperor and king of the two Sicilies.
 
1210-1212. First war of Venice and Genoa.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI  (1182-1226)
1213-1276. James I., the Conqueror in Aragon.1213-1215. War with France; the English lose Vermandois and Valois.
1214-1217. Henry I., King in Castile. 
1215. Insurrection of the barons.
Magna Charta  signed at Runnymede.
  
1215. Fourth Lateran, and twelfth general council against the Albigenses and all heretics. The doctrines of transubstantiation and auricular confession established.
 
 
1217-1262.Norway: Haco IV.